Flashcards in Malignant primary bone tumours Deck (20):
Signs shown by malignant bone tumours on Xray
A periosteal reaction (raised periosteum producing bone)
New bone formation (sclerosis as well as lysis from destruction)
Extension into the surrounding soft tissue envelope
Most common primary bone tumour
Describe an osteosarcoma
A malignant bone producing tumour.
Who is likely to get an osteosarcoma?
Adolescents- younger age groups
Sites where osteosarcomas affect?
How do osteosarcomas spread?
Metastatic spread is usually haematoginous but can be lymphatic.
Treatment of osteosarcomas
Not radiosensitive but adjuvant chemotherapy can prolong survival.
Describe a chondrosacroma
Cartilage producing bone tumour. Less common and less aggressive than an osteosarcoma. They can be very large and slow to metastasise.
Which age group to chondrosarcomas affect?
Tends to be an older age group.
Where do chondrosarcomas tend to be found?
Pelvis or proximal femur.
Prognosis of chondrosarcoma
Dependent upon histological grade.
Treatment of chondrosarcoma
Not radiosensitive and do not respond to adjuvant chemotherapy.
Fibrosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma
Fibrous malignant bone tumours that tend to occur in abnormal bone. They tend to affect adolescents or young adults.
Describe Ewings Sarcoma?
Malignant tumour of primitive cells in the marrow. 2nd most prevalent primary bone tumour and has the poorest prognosis.
What age group does Ewings sarcoma occur in?
Usually between 10 and 20.
Signs of Ewings sarcoma?
Raised inflammatory markers, fever and warm swelling. May be misdiagnosed as osteomyelitis.
Treatment of primary bone tumours in general
Surgery to remove the tumour and surrounding tissue.
Staging investigations into primary bone tumours.
They determine the extent of the tumour and the involvement of muscle, nerves and tissues.
Biopsy is required for histological diagnosis.
Cancer of the lymphatic system. Can occur as a primary bone tumour (non-Hogdkins lymphoma). Tends to affect the pelvis and femur. Surgical resection is the treatment.