Normal lower limb development and common variations Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal > Normal lower limb development and common variations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Normal lower limb development and common variations Deck (23):
1

Genu varus

Bow legged

2

Genu valgum

Knock kneed.

3

At birth, children are born with..

Generally varus knees (bow legged).

4

At what point to childrens legs become neutrally aligned

14 months

5

After childrens legs become aligned- they do..

They become slightly valgum at the age of three.

6

What age to childrens legs become alligned

By the age of 7-9

7

When is genu valgum or varus considered pathological?

When it is outside 2 standard deviations of the mean.

8

Treatment of genu valgum and genu varus

Generally corrects itself by the age of 10, if not/excessive, surgery may be indicated.

9

Blounts disease

Due to a growth defect of the medial proximal tibial physis.

10

Treatment of Blounts disease

May require surgery

11

Causes of pathological genu varus

Rickets, tumours (osteochondromas), traumatic physeal injury, skeletal dysplasia.

12

Causes of pathological genu valgum?

Rickets, tumours (endochondromas), trauma, neurofibromatosis

13

In-toeing

Also known as pigeon toed.
Feet point toward the midline

14

Causes of in-toeing

Femoral neck anteversion
Internal tibial torsion
Forefoot adduction

15

Femoral neck anteversion

Normal anatomy means the femoral neck points slightly anteverted (pointing forwards). Excess anteversion can give the appearance of intoeing.

16

Internal tibial torsion

The bone can be rotated inwards about its vertical axis. This is a normal variation and therefore should be ignored.

17

Forefoot adduction

Surgery is debatable in this case.

18

When are flat feet a normal finding?

At birth- all feet are flat. Arches only come about when you have been walking a lot because the muscle strengthens

19

Key to determining flat feet pathology?

Whether the arch is fixed or unfixed.

20

Mobile/flexible flat feet

The flattened medial arch comes about in dorsiflexion of the great toe (jacks test).
May be related to ligamentous laxity.

21

Fixed flat feet

The medial arch remains flattened even with dorsiflexion of the big toe and weight bearing.

22

Causes of fixed flat feet

Tarsal coalition- the bones in the heel have a bony or cartilaginous connection to one another.
May require surgery.

23

Curly toes

Minor overlapping and curling of the toes. Common in the 5th toe.
Most often corrects without intervention.