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Breast Sonography > Mammography > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mammography Deck (52)
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1
Q

πŸŽ— A ___ is a prominent area of glandular tissue easily palpated. This is often mistaken for a ___.

A

Fibrous Ridge; a mass

2
Q

What’s the difference between a BSE and a CBE?

A

Breast Self-Exam and Clinical Breast Exam.

One is performed by the individual and one by the care provider.

3
Q

πŸŽ— BSE includes ___ and ___ in both an upright and supine position.

A

visual inspection and palpitation

4
Q

πŸŽ— T/F? Most cancers are missed by BSE and CBE.

A

FALSE. Most are found by BSE and CBE.

5
Q

On average, mammography will detect __% of breast cancers in women without symptoms.

A

80-90%

6
Q

πŸŽ— What ensures that mammography is safe and diagnostic?

A

The Mammography Quality Standards Act of 1992 (MQSA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR)

7
Q

Why is compression used in mammography? (4)

A
  1. Thin the breast for even xray exposure
  2. Reduce radiation scattering by decreasing breast thickness
  3. Reduce motion
  4. Prevent tissue overlap
8
Q

How many projections/views are obtained in a screening mammogram?

A

Two. More may be taken if abnormalities are found.

9
Q

πŸŽ— Which is the most valuable mammographic view?

A

Medio-Lateral Oblique (MLO)

10
Q

πŸŽ— The MLO view estimates the location of a mass either __ or __ to the nipple with slight variation due to the __.

A

superior, inferior, obliquity (angle)

11
Q

πŸŽ— Which is the second most valuable mammographic view?

A

Cranio-Caudal (CC)

12
Q

πŸŽ— The CC view describes the location of a mass either __ or __ to the nipple.

A

medial or lateral

13
Q

Describe the Lateral view in mammography.

A

True lateral, with beam parallel to the floor. Can be mediolateral (ML) or lateromedial (LM).
(tumor will be closer to the film aka the 2nd letter)

14
Q

Which mammographic view most accurately demonstrates the location of a mass in the superior or inferior quadrants?

A

Lateral

15
Q

What allows for maximum compression of a specific area to obtain high quality images?

A

Spot compression view obtained with a smaller compression paddle

16
Q

This mammographic view is most valuable when there is a lesion suspected in the most medial portion of the breast.

A

Cleavage view (CV)

17
Q

What mammographic views did 3D mammography make obsolete? (3)

A
  1. Axillary Tail view
  2. Rolled view
  3. Special implant views (Implant Displaced or Eklund)
18
Q

What’s the other name for 3D mammography?

A

tomosynthesis

19
Q

What are the letters in the mammogram marker?

A

The tech’s initials

20
Q

T/F? The mammogram marker is always on the medial side in CC views.

A

FALSE, the lateral side (in the axilla)

21
Q

You need __ views to pinpoint a breast mass on mammogram.

A

2

22
Q

πŸŽ—What’s MULD stand for?

A

Medial Up, Lateral Down

23
Q

What are the three basic types of densities identified on mammography?

A
  1. fat density (low absorption)
  2. water density (medium absorption)
  3. calcium density (high absorption)
24
Q

πŸŽ—What shade are fat densities on mammograms?

A

dark to medium gray (radiolucent)

25
Q

What shade are water densities on mammograms?

A

light gray (radiopaque)

26
Q

What shade are calcium densities on mammograms?

A

white (radiopaque)

27
Q

What types of tissues are water density? (3)

A
  1. fibroglandular tissue
  2. cysts
  3. tumors (benign & malignant)
28
Q

Mammography may miss more than __% of cancers present in dense breasts.

A

50%

29
Q

What percentage of women have fatty breasts?

A

10%

30
Q

What percentage of women have scattered density breasts?

A

40%

31
Q

What percentage of women have heterogeneously dense breasts?

A

40%

32
Q

What percentage of women have extremely dense breasts?

A

10%

33
Q

Normally fibroglandular tissue decreases with age. Why might it increase?

A

lactating, HRT, or weight loss

34
Q

What are the terms for the shapes of tumors in mammograms? (4)

A
  1. round
  2. oval
  3. lobulated
  4. irregular
35
Q

Which shapes on mammograms are likely to be benign?

A
  1. round
  2. oval
  3. lobulated
36
Q

Which shapes on mammograms are suspicious for malignancy?

A
  1. lobulated

2. irregular

37
Q

πŸŽ— The most common shape of breast cancer on mammography is __.

A

irregular

38
Q

What are the terms for the margins of tumors in mammograms? (6)

A
  1. smooth/circumscribed
  2. macro-lobulated
  3. micro-lobulated (usually <2mm)
  4. indistinct
  5. angular
  6. spiculated
39
Q

πŸŽ—Describe angular margins.

A

irregular and jagged - highly sensitive for malignancy

40
Q

Which kinds of margins are likely to be benign?

A
  1. smooth

2. macrolobulated

41
Q

Which kinds of margins are likely to be malignant?

A
  1. microlobulated
  2. indistinct
  3. angular
  4. spiculated
42
Q

What is the least predictive characteristic for malignancy on mammograms?

A

density

43
Q

πŸŽ—What structures are fat densities/radiolucent?

A

πŸŽ—fat, fatty cysts, and lipomas (benign)

44
Q

What structures are of mixed fat and water density?

A

lymph nodes, galactocele (benign), fibroadenolipoma (benign)

45
Q

πŸŽ—What structures are water density/radioopaque?

A

glandular tissue, connective tissue, ducts, muscle, hematoma, phyllodes (benign or malignant)
πŸŽ—cysts, fibroadenoma (benign), malignant tumors

46
Q

T/F? Calcifications can occur in both benign and malignant breast disease.

A

true

47
Q

Name the types of benign calcifications. (4)

A
  1. vascular (appear as calcified tubes)
  2. large/coarse (aka popcorn calcs, larger than 1 mm, associated with degenerating fibroadenoma)
  3. rod-shaped (calcium deposited into ducts)
  4. rim/eggshell (rounded or crescent shaped, associated w/ calcium deposited into cysts)
48
Q

Name the types of suspicious calcifications. (3)

A
  1. micro/pinpoint (less than 1 mm, sometimes malignant)
  2. flake-shaped (indistinct, fuzzy, probably malignant)
  3. linear branching (interrupted fine lines within ducts, usually malignant)
49
Q

What is a diffuse calcification pattern?

A

scattered randomly, benign

50
Q

What is a clusted calcification pattern?

A

microcalcs grouped tightly together, malignant

51
Q

What is a segmental calcification pattern?

A

suggests the calcs follow a ductal system, malignant

52
Q

What is a regional calcification pattern?

A

covering a segment or quadrant of the breast, malignant