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Flashcards in Managing Conflicts of Interest Deck (59):

Social Identity Theory:

When people draw identity and self-esteem from a PERSONAL level, they engage in _____-_________ _______

inter-individual comparisons


Define Social Identity Theory

The theory states that people use social categorization to make an "us vs. them effect." This social categorization is the main cause for prejudice and discrimination.


Social Identity Theory:

People draw their identity and self esteem from both a _____ level and a _____ level,

People draw their identity and self esteem from both a PERSONAL level and a GROUP level.


Social Identity Theory:

When people draw identity and self-esteem from a GROUP level, they make ______ ______

intergroup comparisons


Define Realistic Group Conflict Theory

Intergroup prejudice and discrimination is caused primarily by competition over scarce resources

Example: a group of people stuck on an island together with limited resources will develop conflict (prejudice and discrimination)


Define the two types of negotiation and indicate which individual conflict management strategy is used for each

Distributive - you maximize your outcome while minimizing the other persons outcomes. This is the SHARK (forcing or win/lose negotiation)

Integrative - the goal is to maximize joint benefits. This is the OWL (problem-solving negotiations)


Conflict Management Strategies:

Low priority on goals and low priority on relationship

Turtle (withdrawing)


Conflict Management Strategies:

The relationship is of great importance but the goal is of little importance

Teddy bear (smoothing)


Conflict Management Strategies:

The relationship is of no importance but the goal is priority and will try to overpower opponent to reach goal

Shark (forcing or win-lose)


Conflict Management Strategies:

The relationship is moderately as important as the goal, and vice versa.

Fox (compromising)


Conflict Management Strategies:

The relationship is highly valued and so is the goal

Owl (problem-solving negotiations)


Johnson & Johnson 6 steps to INTEGRATIVE negotiations

1) Explain wants in descriptive and non-evaluative way
2) Explain feelings in same way
3) Explain reasons for those wants
4) Summarize what your opponent wants to show you understand their side
5) Cooperatively come up with at least 3 outcomes that would maximize joint benefits
6) Cooperatively choose best outcome


Johnson & Johnson 5 steps to DISTRIBUTIVE negotiations

1) Identify triggering events and barriers to negotiations
2) Make an extreme opening offer
3) Compromise slowly
4) Use threats, promises, etc to stick as closely as possible to your opening offer
5) Be ready to walk away without agreement


Conflict-negative groups see conflict as DESTRUCTIVE and attempt to avoid and suppress. They view conflict as:

-Only seeing the problem, not solution
-Something to be avoided, suppressed
-Of no value
-Creating defensiveness
-Causing individuals to focus on winning


Conflict-positive groups see conflict as CONSTRUCTIVE. More specifically, they view conflict as:

-Part of the solution
-Something to be encouraged
-potentially constructive
-Exciting, interesting, focusing
Causing individuals to focus on solving problem


Conflict Management Strategies:

Often problem-solving changes into compromise due to lack of _____ and _____

time and resources


Realistic Group Conflict Theory:

Groups show a stronger relationship between competition and conflict than individuals alone. What is the term for this called?

Discontinuity effect, where the competitiveness of groups can be out of character compared to the individuals alone.


Define Negotiation

a process where two or more people are attempting to reach a compromise towards both of their goals that may be shared with each other and conflicting.


Constructive confrontation skills consists of (4)

-Clarifying issue
-Express feelings descriptively
-Express facts and fantasies
-Reach resolution and agreement


State the 3 specific strategies that help in addressing types of conflict-creating behaviours in groups

1) Monopolistic behaviour
2)Nonparticipative behaviour
3)Excessive member to leader dialogue


Define Monopolistic Behaviour

Recognition and gatekeeping, taking turns, nonverbal contact, confrontation


Define Nonparticipative behaviour

Eye contact, agreement with others, asking for an opinion, taking turns, direct questioning, group silence


Define Excessive Member to Leader Dialogue

Breaking eye contact, redirecting minute input


Define Conflict

A fight, struggle, battle, disagreement, dispute, or quarrel


Define Want

A desire for something


Define Need

a necessity for survival. Needs are universal.


Define Goal

an ideal state of affairs that we value and are working to achieve


Define Interests

the potential benefits to be gained by achieving our goals


Define Conflict of Interest

when the actions of one person attempting to maximize their benefits ends up making another persons actions of maximizing their benefits less effective.


Conflict among interests can be based on what 3 situations?

1) A difference in wants, needs, goals, and values
2) Scarcities of certain resources
3) Rivalry


Define Agression

Aggression is physical behaviour intended to injure another


Define Assertiveness

behaviour intended to express confidence or dominance


Define Indirect Aggression

an attempt to hurt another person but without face-to-face conflict, such as through malicious gossip


Define Direct Aggression

is behaviour aimed at hurting another person to their face


Define Emotional Aggression

hurtful behaviour stemming from out-of-control anger


Define Instrumental Aggression

hurting another person to accomplish a goal


Define Displaced Aggression

being aggressive to a person that is not the cause of your anger


List the 5 factors that lead to aggression

1) Depersonalization
2) Existence of primes for attention
3) Temperature and other environmental triggers
4) Utilitarian need to achieve desired goals
5) Provocations


Describe the Frustration-Aggression Process

People who are unable to to achieve a goal they want because of some limitation may experience frustration. That frustration turns into a readiness to respond to anything in an aggressive manner, which turns to hostolity and violence if situational cues become releasers.


Conflict Management Strategies:

What are the 5 important points to consider about these strategies?

1) Practice all 5 strategies to be able to manage it
2) Some of the strategies require participation of both parties and some don't
3) The strategies are incompatible. They cant exist at the same time
4) Certain strategies may deteriorate into other strategies
5) Whichever strategy used in negotiation depends on your perception of the future relationship


Define Entry State and important aspects of it that a person must carry (4 of them)

Entry state is a persons ability to constructively deal with the conflict. Important aspects a persons entry state must have is their level of self awareness, ability to control ones behaviour, skills in communication, and general interpersonal effectiveness


What are the 3 interdependence inherent in any negotiation?

1) Participation interdependence
2) Outcome interdependence
3)Information interdependence


Define Internal Barriers

negative attitudes, values, fears, anxieties, and habitual patterns of avoiding conflict


Define External Barriers

task requirements, group norms for avoiding conflict, pressure to maintain a public image, and worry about vulnerability and other's strengths


Define Participation Interdependence

It takes at least two to negotiate


Define Outcome interdependence

this exists because an agreement can be reached ONLY IF the other disputant agrees


Define Informational Interdependence

this exists because negotiators rely on each other for information about a possible agreement


What are the two dilemmas that information dependence sets up?

1) The dilemma of trust
2) The dilemma of honesty and openness


Define the Dilemma of Trust

it involves a choice between believing or not believing the other negotiator


Define the Dilemma of Honesty and Openness

the risk of either being exploited for giving too much honesty and the risk of looking sketchy if you don't open up too much


Define the mixed-motive situation

the desire to reach an agreement and the desire to make that agreement as favourable to oneself as possible


Define Contractual Norms

set out the ground rules for conducting the negotiations


Define Norm of Reciprocity

negotiator should return the same benefit or harm given to them by their opponent


Define Norm of Equity

the benefits received or costs should be the same for both negotiators


Define Goal Dilemma

when you are trying to reach an agreement thats favourable to yourself but you don't want to make it so one-sided that your opponent refuses to agree.


Define Fundamental Attribution Error

When you assume someone else's mistake is due to personal factors but when you make the same mistake, you blame environmental factors.


Define Attribution Theory

Making explanations for events based on what they know from the past about it


Define Superordinate Goals

Bringing two groups together that are antagonists to each other and making them work cooperatively towards a goal


Define hero-traitor dynamic

winner is hero, loser is traitor in negotiation