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Flashcards in Valuing Diversity Deck (37):

List the 3 types of diversity and define each

1) Demographic - culture, ethnicity, age, gender
2) Personal - personality, communication style
3) Abilities and Skills - social and technical


Describe the Identity Salience Model

The identity salience model addresses the limitations to having all dimensions of diversity recognized. The main thing it states is that different identities are activated in different social contexts.


In terms of PRODUCTION TASKS, what does it state on how diversity relates to group performance?

groups with more diversity in terms of technical skills tend to perform better


Describe the Kohler effect and what similar term it relates to

Kohler effect is when less skilled group members improve their performance to more closely match that of their partners. This relates to production tasks


The Kohler effect has been found to be stronger in _____ than _____ tasks and in women than men

conjunctive than disjunctive tasks


In terms of INTELLECTIVE TASKS, what does it state on how diversity relates to group performance?

groups with more diversity in terms of gender tend to perform better


In terms of DECISION-MAKING TASKS, what does it state on how diversity relates to group performance?

a variety of indices of diversity appear to relate to superior group performance. Such as personality traits, leadership skills, and attitudes


What are 3 challenges diverse groups can experience that homogenous ones wont?

1) Interaction strain
2) Faultlines
3) Reduced cohesion


Define ethnicity

social group with a shared:
1) history
2) sense of identity
3) geography
4) cultural roots

which may occur despite racial difference


Define race

a human population that are distinct based on PHYSICAL characteristics.


Define culture

the perspectives, practices and products of a social group


Cultural Diversity:

State Locke's multidimensional view of culture (10)

He believed that cultures can be known up to 10 dimensions:

1) Acculturation
2) Poverty
3) History of Oppression
4) Language and Arts
5) Prejudice and racism
6) Sociopolitical factors
7) Childrearing practices
8) Religious practices
9) Family structure & dynamics
10) Cultural values & attitudes


Cultural Diversity:

Which one of Locke's dimensions of culture has received the most empirical attention?

The dimensions of cultural values and attitudes


List the commonly researched constructs that differentiate cultures in terms of their underlying values (6)

1) Individualism vs collectivism (most researched)
2) Direct vs Indirect communication
3) Internal vs External control
4) Achieved vs ascribed status
5) Relative vs absolute rules
6) Affective vs neutral interaction


What did the researcher Hofstede explore?

Cross-cultural differences in individualism-collectivism in the workplace


Define Stereotyping and why we do it

holding beliefs about social groups from the traits/characteristics that all members are believed to share. We do it to categorize and help to make the social world seem more predictable


Cons of stereotyping

1) People will never have accurate thoughts about the stereotypes because every group is heterogenous to a certain degree
2) People don't see an individual, but more as a member of a group.


What 3 information processes does stereotyping affect?

1) Attention - stereotype info is generally more noticed.
2) Accessibility - stereotype info is more accessible than non stereotype info
3) Recall - info related to a stereotype is more effectively remembered


Define outgroup homogeneity and what it is in contrast to

when members of an OUTGROUP are perceived to be "all alike" than members of the INGROUP. It is in contrast to ingroup differentiation


Define ingroup differentiation and what it is in contrast to

the belief that members of own groups are more heterogenous. It is in contrast to outgroup homogeneity.


How can outgroup homogeneity and ingroup differentiation be influenced?

By the reduced knowledge about and experience that people have regarding their outgroups vs their ingroups


Define ingroup homogeneity effect

most common among minority groups that are seeking to unite against perceived discrimination and inequality


Define prejudice

negative ATTITUDES towards members of specific social groups


Define Discrimination

Differential (usually negative) BEHAVIOURS directed towards members of different social groups. This is prejudice IN ACTION.


Define stereotype threat

when people believe that they might be judged in a negative stereotype about their group if they behave a certain way.


Perceived discrimination and self-esteem are ______ correlated




Define discrimination of ageism

any attitude or action that subordinates (lowers in rank of position) a person (or group) because of their age.


Discrimination - Ageism:

Research has focused on attitudes towards ____ rather than ____ adults

Older rather than younger adults


Discrimination - Ageism:

_______ adults tent to show more ageist attitudes than _____ adults.

1)Younger adults
2)Older adults


Discrimination - Ageism:

What was the social identity theory perspective on ageism and young/old adults?

younger adults whose age is a stronger component of their ID have more ageist views than even younger adults whose age isnt as important to their ID


Define Ableism

The beliefs that put inferior values to people who have developmental, emotional, physical or psychiatric disabilities


Discrimination: Sexism

What are the two types of sexism?

1) Hostile sexism
2 Benevolent sexism


Define hostile sexism

Belief that women are a threat to male dominance and power. More strongly held by men, especially in countries where legal differences between men and women


Define benevolent sexism

Belief that women have positive qualities that men do not have and these are used to justify gender inequality. More strongly held by women.


Contact Theory:

State benefits of contact

1) INCREASED contact can DECREASE prejudice by INCREASING familiarity and DECREASING anxiety
2) Positive contact between groups can result in the adoption of egalitarian social norms and DECREASE of prejudice


Define Contact Hypothesis

the view that increased contact of social groups can be effective in reducing prejudice between them


Contact Theory:

Contact can also lead to recategorization. Define recategorization. what does this lead to after?

a shift in the perceived boundaries between an ingroup and outgroup. This leads into the forming of COMMON INGROUP IDENTITY