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Flashcards in MCAT Biology Flashcards 2 Deck (494):
1

Which enzyme unwinds the double helix?

DNA helicase

2

saturation kinetics

dynamics of enzyme reaction speed... rate limited by enzyme concentation.

3

Three types of hormones

peptide, steroid, tyrosine derivatives

4

steps in bacterial infection

inflammation, macrophages and neutrophils engulf bacteria. Interstitial goes into lympathic system and lymphocytes are in lymph nodes. Macrophages present antigens to B lympocytes. B lymphocytes use helper T cells to differentiate into memory and plasma cells. plasma cells make antibodies which go into blood and attack bacteria. Memory cells are for secondary response.

5

hemoglobin

4 polypeptide subunits, each with a heme group--with iron in the center. Each can combine with one O2, forming oxy hemoglobin. cooperativity, a cascade effect.

6

MINERALS

inorganic elements that exist in the form of ions inside and outside the cell; establish electrochemical gradients, act as co-factors to enable protein function, and form matrix compounds in bone and else where

7

PROTEINS

organic compounds made up of long chains of amino acids

8

lacteal

A capillary network and a lymph vessel where nutrients are absorbed.

9

Replication Fork

Replisome attach on the chromosome at this location

10

DNA's four nitrogenous bases

Adenine and ThymineGuanine and Cytosine

11

Noncompetitive inhibitors

bond to enzyme at nonactive site, change its shape to make it less effective. Cyanide is example.

12

human growth hormone (hGH)

made: anterior pituitaryeffects: all body cellsaction: stimulates growth, increasing protein production

13

venules, veins

veins contain much more blood by volume than arteries. Blood slowest in capillaries, next slowest in veins. Veins have valves to prevent backflow.

14

ELECTROSTATIC FORCES

the forces between particles that are caused by their electric charges

15

Promoter

A spot on the DNA that tells RNA polymerase where to begin transcription

16

specific peptide hormones

1. anterior pituitary: FSH, LH, ACTH, hGH, TSH, Prolactin2. posterior pituitary: ADH, oxytocin3. parathyroid: PTH4. pancreatic: glucagon, insulin

17

NON-COMPETITIVE INHIBITION

does not attach to the active site instead it changes the shape of the enzyme so the substrate doesn’t fit as well, cannot be overcome with substrate concentration

18

ENZYME SPECIFICITY

each enzyme must be tailored made for one reaction, which gives the cell more control in regulating chemical reactions

19

ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

the release of energy from glucose or another organic substrate in the absence of Oxygen

20

Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands.

exocrine release enzymes to external environment through ducts, ie sweat, oil, digestive stuff.endocrine releases directly into body fluid.

21

UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

the carbon chain has at least one double bond; lower melting point

22

oxygen saturation of hemoglobin depends on:

lower O2 affinity if high CO2 pressure, low pH (high H+), high temperature, BPG.

23

What is being removed from a deoxynucleotide triphosphate as each nucleotide is added to the new strand?

a removal of a pyrophosphate group

24

The gene for triose phosphate isomerase from maize (a corn plant) spans over 3400 base pairs of DNA and contains eight introns and nine exons. Which of the following would most likely represent the number of nulceotides found int eh mature mRNA after post

A is correct. Introns are remove from the primary trancript during posttransciptional processing. The number of nucleotides in the mature mRNA would have to be less than the number of base pairs of the gene.

25

Which of the following is NOT true concerning DNA replication?

C is correct. DNA replication is semiconservative, which means that both strands are replicated, and each old strand is combined with a new strand.

26

Which of the following is found in the RNA but not the DNA of a living cell?a. thymineb. a double helixc. an additional hydroxyl groupd. hydrogen bonds

C is correct. DNA is bouble stranded with A, C, G, T, while RNA is single stranded with uracil replacing T. The 'D' in DNA stands for deoxy- meaning that DNA is lacking a hydroxyl group possessed by RNA at its second pentose carbon atom.

27

Mucous Cells

Produce mucus

28

effector

target cell of hormone

29

FERMENTATION

energy-yielding anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule, like glucose, that yields lactic acid, carbon dioxide, ethanol, or some other simple product

30

Pancreatic Amylase

Hydrolyzes polysaccharides to disaccharides and trisaccharides.Very powerful vs. salivary amylase.Degrades nearly all carbohydrates from the chyme into small glucose polymers.

31

glycerol

3 carbon backbone, in triglycerides.

32

aldosterone

made: adrenal cortexeffects: Na+ absorption, K+ secretion in tubule of kidney, also increases blood pressure

33

pharynx

throat, passage way for food/air.

34

GLYCOGEN

carbohydrate chains of glucose molecules attached via alpha-linkages stored in animals

35

HYDROLYSIS

1. chemical decomposition of macromolecules, disassembly of polymers into monomers by reacting with water2. opposite of dyhydration reactions

36

rRNA

combined the proteins to form ribosomessynthesized in the nucleolus

37

irreversible inhibitors

covalently bonds to enzyme, permenantly disables it

38

PTH, parathyroid hormone

made: parathyroideffects: increase blood calcium, regulated by calcium ion concentration in plasma

39

Path of blood

(Systemic)Left ventricle, aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries. Venules, veins, superior and inferior vena cava right atrium.(Pulminary)Right venticle, pulmonary arteries, arterioles, capillaries of lungs. Venules, veins, pulmonary veins, left atrium.

40

LOW SOLUBILITY

incapable of being dissolved; insoluble

41

ZYMOGEN/PROENZYME

an inactive enzyme precursor that requires a biochemical change (such as a hydrolysis reaction revealing the active site, or changing the configuration to reveal the active site) for it to become an active enzyme

42

DEHYDRATION/CONDENSATION

1.covalent bonding of monomers through the loss of a water molecule that requires energy and enzymes2. opposite of hydrolysis reactions

43

Transcription: Elongation

RNA polymerase transcribes only one strand of the DNA nucleotide sequence into a complementary RNA nucleotide sequence.

44

krebs cycle

pyruvate->acetyl CoA turns cycle 2x. Cycle produces 1ATP, 3NADH, 1FADH2.

45

blastocyst

hallow ball of cells derived from morula implanted in wall of uterus

46

platelets

parts of membrane bound cytoplasm torn from megakaryocytes.. megakaryocytes remain in marrow. Platelets function in clotting.

47

lymphatic system

collects excess interstitial fluid and returns to blood. Also large particles. Flow goes through lymph nodes which fight infection. Lymph system is open. Many lymph nodes contain lymphocytes throughout system.

48

ATP SYNTHASE

enzyme in mitochondria's nucleus that produces ATP by adding a phosphate group to the molecule ADP by utilizing some form of energy

49

INTERMOLECULAR BONDS

forces of attraction BETWEEN the molecules of a substance or substances; weaker than covalent or ionic bonding

50

Parietal Cell

Uses its many mitochondria to produce the energy needed to establish a proton gradient.Secrete HCl

51

E Coli

Produce vitamin K, B12, thiamin and riboflavin.

52

Translation: Elongation 2 (translocation)

Translocation: ribosome shifts 3 nucleotides along the mRNA toward the 3' endtRNA with methionine moves to E site to leave ribosome tRNA with nascent dipeptide moves to the P siteanother GTP is used and this step continues until a stop codon reaches the P site

53

oxidative phosphorylation

production of ATP via proton gradient and ATP synthase.

54

thyroid hormone properties

lipid soluable, use plasma protein carriers. Bind to receptors in nucleus. Latent response, longer duration.

55

humoral immunity effective vs:

bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoans, viruses, blood toxins.

56

TERPENES

major group of lipids made up of hydrocarbons

57

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

group of electron carriers in mitochondria that transport electrons to and from each other in a sequence, in order to generate ATP

58

PEPTIDE BOND

formed between amino acids when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other releasing a molecule of water (H2O)dehydration synthesis reaction, resulting in a CO-NH bond and amide molecule

59

Translation: Elongation 1

tRNA with its corresponding amino acid attaches to the A site (aminoacyl site) at the expense of two GTPs. C-terminus of methionine attach to N-termious of Amino acid. Dehyration reaction catalyzed by peptidyl transferase processed by the ribosome

60

substrate level phosphorylation

formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate, using energy of a favorable reaction.

61

types of acquired immunity

humoral or B-Cell

63

OPTIMAL pH

enzymes are dependent upon a narrow pH range (near neutrality) and will denature when pH is too far

64

epinephrine and norepinephrine properties

water soluable, bind to receptors on target tissue, act through 2nd messenger cAMP

65

HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC EFFECTS

occur between amino acids with the same polar and nonpolar side chains

66

INDUCE FIT MODEL

moulds enzyme to change shape to make substrate fit it

67

A tRNA molecule attaches to histidine. The anticodon on the tRNA is 5'-AUG-3'. Which of the following nucleotide sequences in an mRNA molecule might contain the codon for histidine?

D is correct. The complementary sequence to 5'-AUG-3' is 5'-CAU-3'. Only D contains this sequence in any order. Remember thymine is only ofund in DNA, not RNA so B and C are wrong.

68

In PCR amplification, a primer is hybridized to the end of a DNA fragment and acts as the initiation site of replication for a specialized DNA polymerase. The DNA fragment to be amplified is shown below. Assuming that the primer attaches exactly to the en

D is correct. This question requires no knowledge of PCR. It requires only that you know that a DNA polymerase replicates from 5' to 3', and that you know the complementary bases. DNA polymerase can only read from 3' to 5', so it must start at the 3' end of the DNA fragment.

69

Proline is not technically an alpha-amino acid. Due to the ring structure of proline, it cannot conform to the geometry of the alpha-helix and creates a bend in the polypeptide chain. This phenomenon assists in the creation of what level of protein struct

C is correct. The bending of the polypeptide chain is the tertiary structure of a protein

70

The large subunit of an 80S ribosome is made from:

C is correct. The ribosome is made in the nucleolus from rRNA and protein. It does not have a membrane

71

estrogen

ovary/placentamaintains female secondary sexual characteristics

72

progesterone

ovary/placenta; steroid hormone secreted by corpus luteum during luteal phase. Stimulates development & maintenance of endometrial walls for implantation

73

Testosterone

TESTES: male characteristics; spermatogenesis

74

somatostatin

pancreassuppresses secretion of glucagon and insulin

75

thymosin

thymusstimulates T lyphocyte development

76

Endorphins

anterior pituitary; inhibit the perception of pain in the brain

77

ACTH

anterior pituitary; stimulates adrenal cortex to make and secrete glucocorticoids

78

Blood Glucose

Glucagon (polypeptide derivative), Epinepherine (amino acid derivative), Cortisol (steroid / glucocorticoid) Regulates...

79

growth hormone

anterior pituitarystimulates growth in bones and muscles

80

glucocorticoids

adrenal cortexincreases blood glucose level and decreses protein synthesis

81

adrenocorticotropic hormone

anterior pituitarystimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids

82

Prolactin

ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> MAMMARY GLAND: milk production

83

Cortisol

ADRENAL CORTEX: results in a longer-term stress response; increased blood [glucose]; increased protein catabolism; decreased inflammation and immunity; many other (glucocorticoid)

84

Pancreas

[Location] Glucagon (alpha) & Insulin (beta) & Somatostatin (sigma)

85

Sex steroids

ADRENAL CORTEX: not normally important, but an adrenal tumor can overproduce these, causing masculinization or feminization.

86

parathyroid hormone

parathyroidincreases the amount of blood calcium level

87

Regulation of blood [glucose]

Insulin and Glucagon

88

Oxytocin

POSTERIOR PITUITARY -> BREAST & UTERUS: milk letdown and uteral contractions

89

Vasopressin (ADH)

made in hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary; Increases permeability of nephron's collecting duct to water -> increased water reabsorption and increased blood volume; Secreted when plasma osmolarity increases (osmoreceptors) or when blood vol decreases (baroreceptors)

90

Insulin

pancreas; Produced & secreted by beta cells of islets of Langerhans; Protein; Secreted in response to high [glucose]; Stimulates uptake of glucose by muscle and adipose cells & storage of glucose as glycogen; Stimulates synthesis of fats from glucose & uptake of amino acids; Regulated by blood glucose levels

91

Blood Pressure

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) & Aldosterone Regulates....

92

Antidiuretic hormone

POSTERIOR PITUITARY -> KIDNEY: water retention (Vasopressin)

93

Luteinizing hormone

ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> OVARY/ TESTES: ovulation or testosterone synthesis

94

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> THYROID: increases synthesis and release of thyroid hormone (tropic)

95

Aldosterone (mineralocorticoid)

ADRENAL MEDULLA -> KIDNEY: increased Na+ reabsorption to increase blood pressure

96

Involved in Pregnancy Prepping

Oxytocin, Prolactin, Progesterone, Estrogen, LH, FSH

97

Releasing and Inhibiting Factors

HYPOTHALAMUS -> ANTERIOR PITUITARY: modifies activities

98

Calcitonin

THYROID C CELLS -> BONE, KIDNEY, SMALL INTESTINE: lowers serum [Ca2+]

99

Somatostatin (SS)

SIGMA CELLS OF THE ISLETS OF LANGERHANS IN THE PANCREAS: inhibits many digestive processes

100

Follicle Stimulating hormone

ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> OVARY / TESTES: follicle development or spermatogenesis

101

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

ANTERIOR PITUITARY -> OVARY / TESTES: follicle development or spermatogenesis

102

Cyanocobalamin

B12

103

Transcription

RNA synthesis

104

White matter

Myelinated axons

105

Spirilla

Non-rigid helical bateria.

106

Aldosterone

The principal mineralocorticoid secreted by teh adrenal cortex. This steroid hormone targets the kidney tubules and increases renal reabsorption of sodium [and excretion of potassium]. (this causes ADH to be secreted & increased water comes out, increasing blood pressure indirectly).

107

Cartilage

Flexible, resilient connective tissue.

108

Bowman's capsule

Filtration of blood

109

Chyme

Partially digested, semiliquid food mixed with digestive enzymes and acids in the stomach.

110

liver

blood storage, blood filtration, carbohydrate, protein, & fat metabolism, detoxification, erythrocyte destruction, vitamin storage

111

Chylomicrons

Insoluble packages of triglycerides and esterified cholesterol molecules

112

Lysosomes

Spherical sacs of membrane-containing hydrolytic enzymes that function in acidic environments (~4.5-5.0); Function in digestion of material brought into the cell by phagocytosis or in digestion of damaged organelles.

113

Estrogen

In ovary/placenta; maintains female secondary sexual characteristics

114

Androgen

Male sex hormone.Primary is testosterone.

115

Heterochromatin

Tightly coiled chromosomal material that stains deeply during interphase and is believed to be genetically inactive.

116

cDNA

Complementary DNA. DNA produced synthetically by reverse trascribing mRNA. Because of eukaryotic mRNA splicing, cDNA contains no inrons.

117

Hexokinase

The enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate in the first step of glycolysis. This is one of the ain regulatory steps of this pathway. Hexokinase is feedback-inhibited by glucose-6-P.

118

Neuron

The basic functional and structural unit of the nervous system. The neuron is a highly specialized cell, designed to transmit action potentials.

119

Placenta

An organ that develops during pregnacy, derived in part from the mother and in part from the zygote. The placenta is the site of exchange of nutrients and gases between the mother's blood and the fetus' blood. The placenta is formed during the first three months of pregnancy.

120

Anabolism

The process of bulidng complex structures out of simpler precursors, e.g. synthesizing protiens from amino acids.

121

Antiparallel orientation

The normal configuration of double-stranded DNA in which the 5' end of oen strand is paired with the 3' end of the other

122

oxytocin

made in hypothalamus, stored in posterior pituitary; Secreted during childbirth, increases strength & frequency of contractions; Induced by suckling - stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands

123

parasympathetic nervous system effect on the bladder

contracts muscle

124

Absorption

The general process of transporting the products of digestion from digestive tract to circulatory system to distribute to the body's tissues and cells

125

T-Cells are concerned with _________ immunity.

Cell-mediated.

126

Simple Diffusion

Water, oxygen, carbon dioxide (dissolved gases) and lipid soluble molecules cross easily through the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane.

127

Chief cells

pepsinogen-secreting cells found at the bottom of the gastric glands of the stomach.

128

The _____ _______ synthesizes lysosome's membrane and hydrolytic enzymes

Rough ER

129

Gap Junctions

Small tunnels connecting cells.Allow small ions and molecules to move between cells.

130

Norepinephrine

#NAME?

131

bacteriophages

viruses that can only infect bacteria

132

Hydroxyapatite

Hardy crystals consisting of calcium and phosphate that form the bone matrix.

133

Monosaccharide

The monomer of a carbohydrate. Monosaccharides have the general chemical formula CnH2nOn, and common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose.

134

Yolk sac

An embryonic structure particularly important in egg-laying animals because it contains the yolk, the only source of nutrients for the embryo developing inside the egg. IN humans, the yolk sac is very small (since mammals get their nutrients via the place

135

Syncytium

A large multinucleate cell, typically formed by the fusion of many smaller cells during development (e.g. a skeletal muscle cell), or formed by nuclear division in the absence of cellular division.

136

Coccus

A bacteria having a round shape (plural = cocci)

137

Determination

The point during development at which a cell becomes committed to a particular fate (sensory, other, etc.). Note that the cell is not differentiated at this point; determination comes before differentiation. Determination can be due to cytoplasmic effects or to induction by neighboring cells.

138

Ejection fraction

The fraction of teh end-diastolic volume ejected from the ventricles in a single contraction of teh heart. THe ejection fraction is normally around 60% of the end diastolic volume.

139

Splicing

One type of eukaryotic mRNA processing in which introns are removed from the primary transcript and exons are ligated together. SPlicing of transcripts can be different in different tissues.

140

Summation

(1) The integration of input (EPSPs and IPSPs) from many presynaptic neruons by a single postsynaptic neuron, either temporaly or spatially. Summation of al input can either stimulate the postsynaptic neuron and possibly lead to an action potential, or it can inhibit the neuron, reducing the likelihood of an action potential. (2) The integration of single muscle twitches into a sustained contraction (tetany).

141

Vasa recta

The capillaries that surround the tubules of the nephron. The vasa recta reclaims reabsorbed substances, such as water and sodium ions.

142

Helicase

An enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation for DNA replication.

143

Hemoglobin

A four-subunit protein found in red blood cells that binds oxygen. Each subunit contains a heme group, a large multi-ring molecule with an iron atom at its center. One hemoglobin molecule can bind four oxygen molecules in a cooperative manner.

144

Amylase

An enzyme found in saliva and pancreatic juices that hydrolyzes starch to maltose. Also known as ptyalin, diastase, or amylopsin.

145

vagus nerve

innervates the SA node, slowing contractions

146

Conjugation

A form of genetic recombination in bacteria in which plasmid and/or genomic DNA is transferred from one bacterium to the toher through a conjugation bridge.

147

Villi

Projections which cover the surface of the inner wall of the small intestine

148

Types of Lipids

1. fatty acids2. triacylglycerols3. phospholipids4. glycolipids5. steroids6. terpenes

149

A fluid called ________ fills the semicircular canals.

endolymph

150

Resolution

the ability to discriminate two points and visualize them as two points, even though they are extremely close together.Dependent on the wavelength of the light source and can be calclated to be about 1/2 the wavelength.

151

Cholecystokinin

A hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to the presences of fats. It promotes release of bile from the gallbladder and pancreatic juice from the pancreas, and reduces stomach motility.

152

Allosteric Regulation.

The modification of the enzyme configuration resulting from the binding of an activator or inhibitor at a specific binding site on the enzyme.

153

Process of Replication

Helicase unzips double strand.RNA Polymerase builds primerDNA Polymerase assembles leading and lagging strandsprimes are removedOkazaki frags are joined

154

Vitamin C

Asorbic Acid- assists synthesis of collagen in connective tissues- scurvy, anemia, slow wound healing

155

FSH

Growth of follicles in the female, production of sperm in the male.

156

Attachment

The first step in viral infection. Attachemen of a
virus to its host is very specific and is also known as
adsorption

157

Neuronal control of breathing

Autonomal control:medulla - ventral(deep inspiration) Dorsal(expiration)rythmicity- 12-15 per/min is under control of pons and medulla via input of afferent vagal stretch receptors in lungParasympathetic stimulation:causes bronchoconstriction and increase in airway resistanceSympathetic stimulation:Bronchodialation

158

alleles

genes coding for alternative forms of a given trait

159

Thymus

An immune organ located near the heart. THe thymus is the site of T cell maturation and is larger in children and adolescents.

160

Promoter

The sequence of nucleotides on a chromosome that activates RNA polymerase so that transcription can take place. The promoter is found upstream of the start site, the location where transcription actually takes place.

161

Operon

A nucleotide sequence on DNA that contians three elemtns: a coding sequence for one or more enzymes, *a coding sequence for a regulatory protein, and upstream regulatory sequences where the regulatory proteins can bind. An example is the lac operon found

162

Neuralation

The formatino of the nervous system during weeks 5-8 of gestation. Neuralation begins when a section of the ectoderm invaginates and pinches off to form the neural groove, which ultimately forms the neural tube, from which the brain and spinal cord develo

163

Avascular

Lacking a blood supply; cartialge is an example of this

164

Bacilus

A bacterium having a rod-like shaped (plural = bacilli).

165

Capacitation

An incrase in the fragility of the membranes of sperm cells when exposed to the female reproductive tract. Capacitation is required sot aht the acrosomal enzymes can be relased to faciliate fertilization.

166

Proliferative phase

The second phase of the uterine (endometrial) cycle, during which the endometrium (shed off during menstration is rebuilt). This phase of the cycle is under the control of estrogen, secreted from the follicle developing in the ovary during this time period. The proliferative phase typically lasts from day 6 to day 14 of the menstrual cycle.

167

Ligand

The specific molecule that binds to a receptor.

168

Creatine Phosphate

An energy storage molecule used by muscle tissue. The phosphate from creatine phosphate can be removed and attached to an ADP to generate ATP quickly.

169

Z line

define boundaries and anchor the thin filaments

170

Atrioventricular node

an area of specialized tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles.

171

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

A hormone secreted by the samll intestine (duodenum) in response to the presence of fats. It promotes release of bile from the gallbladder and pancreatic juice from the pancreas,and reduces stomach motility.

172

Aerobic respiration

Requires oxygen and yields ~36 ATP total (including glycolysis). If O₂ present, pyruvate and NADH move into the mitochondrial matrix. Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA (producing NADH and CO₂ in the process). Then the Krebs cycle begins ...

173

Creatine Phosphate is a source of ATP. True or False?

TRUE!

174

Urinary System

System that remvoes body wastes from bloodstream and helps regulate homeostasis of the internal environment

175

niche

The way in which a species exploits its environment.

176

Anterior pituitary gland

Also known as the adenohypophysis, this is made of glandular tissue. It makes and secretes six different hormones: FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, prolactin, and growth hormone. This is controlled by releasing and inhibiting factors from the hypothalamus.

177

Obligate anaerobes?

Cannot survive in the presence of oxygen.

178

Vitamin B2

Riboflavin- Part of FAD, coenzyme in respiration and protein metabolism - inflammation and breakdown of skin

179

Zygote

When the sperm and the ovum fuse during fertilization they become a zygote.

180

Dihybrid Cross

A dihybrid cross is a breeding experiment that is concerned with differences in two traits.

181

corona radiata

1. outer layer of cells surrounding the oocyte2. these cells are secreted by follicle cells

182

3*

bending of the string into a pretzil shape or glob globular protein has 2*+3* structure

183

Peptide bond

The bond formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

184

Myofiber

A skeletal muscle cell, also known as a muscle fiber. Skeletal muscle cells are formed from the fusion of many smaller cells (during development) consequently they are very long and are multinucleate.

185

Topoisomerase

An enzyme that cuts one or both strands of DNa to relieve the excess tension caused by the unwinding of the helix by helicase during replication.

186

Intercostal muscles

Muscles located in between the ribs that play a role in ventilation.

187

Fluid mosaic model

the current understanding of membrane structure, in which teh membrane iscomposed of a mix o lipids and proteins (a mosaic) that are free to move fluidly among themselves.

188

Venous returns

The amount of blood returned to heart by the vena cavae.

189

Aqueous humor

A thin, watery fluid found in teh anterior segment of the eye (between the lens and the cornea). THe aqueous humor is constantly produced and drained, adn helps to bring nutrients to the lesn and corena, as well as to remove metabolic wastes

190

Nonsense mutation

A point mutation in which a condon that specifies an amino acid is mutated into a stop (nonsense) codon.

191

DNA polymerase

Also called DNA pol, this is the enzyme that replicates DNA. Eukaryotes have a single version of the enzyme, simply called DNA pol (not need to know much detail); prokaryotes have three versions, called DNA pol I, DNA pol II, and DNA pol III.

192

Erythrocyte

A red blood cell; they are filled with hemoglobin, and teh function of the erythrocytes is to carry oxygen in the blood.

193

Exocrine gland

A gland that secretes its product into a duct, which ultimately carries the product to the surface of the body or into a body cavity. Some examples of exocrine gland and their products are sweat glands (sweat), gastric glands (acid, mucus, protease), the liver (bile), sebaceous glands (oil), and lacrimanl glands (tears).

194

Pancreatic duct

The main duct of the pancreas. The pancreatic duct carries the exocrine secretions of the pancreas (enzymes and bicarbonate) to the small intestine (dueodenum).

195

Upsteam

Toward the 5' end of an Rna transcript (the 5' end of the DNA coding strand). The promoter and start sites are upstream.

196

Sertolli cells

Cells that form the walls of the seminiferous tubules and help in spermatogenesis Sertoli cells are also called susenacular cells.

197

brush border enzymes

enzymes secreted by the mucosal cells lining the intestine. They are disaccharides and dipeptidases that digest the smallest carbohydrates and peptides.

198

Downstream

Toward the 3' end of an RNA transcript (the 3' end of the DNA coding strand). Stop codons and (in eukaryotes) the pol-A tail are found 'downstream.'

199

Rxn rate and temperature

At first, temperature increases will increase rxn rate, but then the enzyme will denature and rxn rate drops off.

200

Essential substances are reabsorbed into the blood by the kidney. Such as: _________

Glucose, Salts, and amino acids.

201

Gene Activator Proteins

The proteins that bind to enhancers (which increase transcription of the associated gene)

202

central canal

The hollow center of an osteon, also known as a Haversian canal. This contains blood vessels, lumphatic vessels, and nerves. Bone is laid down around this in concentric rings called lamellae.

203

What portions can the diencephalon be divided into?

Thalamus and hypothalamus

204

Somatic Nervous Sytem

Designated to primarily respond to the external environment. Contains sensory and motor function.Acetylcholine is used as a neurotransmitter.Voluntary muscle control.

205

Lower respiratory tract function

No ciliated cells present.Removal of foreign particles accomplished via macrophage and leukocytes with drainage into lymphatics.Gas exchange occurs.

206

lock and key theory

theory of enzyme catalysis stating that the active site's structure is complementary to the structure of the substrate

207

Auditory tube

The tube that connects the middle ear acity with the pharynx; also known as the Eustachian tube. Its fucntion is to equalize midle ear pressure with atmospheric pressure so that pressure on boths sides of the tympanic membrane is the same.

208

Adrenal medulla

The inner region of the adrenal gland. The adrenal medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous systme, and releases epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine into the blood when stimuated. These hormones augment and prolon the effects of sympathetic stim

209

Semilunar valves

The valves in the heart that separate the ventricles from the arteries. The pulmonary semilunar valve separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery, and the aortic semilunar valve separates left ventricle from the aorta. These valves close at th

210

Neuromuscular junction

The synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle cell. At the NMJ, the muscle cel lmembrane is invaginated and the axon terminus is elongated so that a greater area of membrane can be depolarized at one time.

211

Frameshift mutation

A mutation caused by an insertion or deletion of base pairs in a gene sequence in DNA such that the reading frame of the gene (and thus teh amino acid sequence of the protein) is altered.

212

Loop of Henle

The loop of the nephron that dips downward into the renal medulla. The loop of Henle sets up a concentration gradient in the kidney such that from the cortex to the renal pelvis osmolarity increases. The descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to water, but not to sodium whereas the ascending limb is permeable to sodium, but not to water (and in fact, actively transports sodium out of the filtrate).

213

Acrosome

A region at the head of a sperm cell that contains digestive enzyems which, when released during the acrosome reaction, can facilitate penetration of the corona radiata of the egg, and subsequently, fertilization

214

Epiphysis

One of the two ends of long bone (pl: eiphyses). The epiphyses have an outer shell made of compact bone and inner core of spongy bone. The spongy bone is filled with red bone marrow, the stie of blood cell formation.

215

Specific Bones in the Axial System

Skull, Ossicles, Vertebral column, Ribs, Sternum, Hyoid

216

The Pons acts as the _____ center for information going to the ______

relay, cerebellum.

217

What are basement membranes?

Basement membranes attach the inner surface of epithelial cells to the underlying connective tissue.

218

Name the three classifications of the organization of epithelium (layers). 

Simple epithelia= single layer of epithelial cellsStratified epithelia= multiple layers of epithelial cells

219

Name the three types of epithelial cell shape.

Psuedostratified epithelia= single layer of epithelial cells but looks stratified due to differing heights of the cells. Cuboidal (cube-like shape), columnar (height is at least 4X width), and squamous (scale-like).

220

In the proximal convoluted tubule, what solutes are actively transported out?

Sodium, amino acids, vitamins, glucose

221

Ganglion (Nervous system)

A cluster of cell bodies OUTSIDE the CNS

222

Diploid organism

An organism that has two copies of its genome it each cell. The paired genomes are said to be homologous.

223

Antigen presenting cell

Cells that possess MHC II (B cells and macrophages) and are able to display bits of ingested antigen on their surface in order to activate T cells. See also "MHC"

224

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

Cerebellum= hindbrain structure that helps modulate motor impulses initiated by the motor cortex and is important for maintaining hand-eye coordination, balance, and the timing of rapid movements.

225

What are the functions of the pons?

Pons= hindbrain relay structure of communication b/w the cortex and cerebellum.

226

What are the functions of the medulla oblongata? 

Medulla oblongata= hindbrain structure important for many vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and gastrointestinal activity. 

227

What structures make up the brain stem?

Brain stem= midbrain, pons, and the medulla oblongata.

228

What type of fungi are molds?

Filamentous fungi and some are imperfect and can reproduce only asexually.

229

Atrioventricular bundle (AV) bundle

Also known as the Bundle of His, this is the first portion of the cardiac conduction system, after the AV node.

230

What is the difference between nerve inpulses in vertebrates and invertebrates?

Vertebrates have myelinated axons to increase impulse speed whereas invertebrates are non-myelinated. In order to increase transmission speed, invertebrates have larger neurons.

231

1 FADH₂ yields how many ATP?

2 ATP for every FADH₂ (reduces a protein further along in the electron transport chain therefore not so high-energy)

232

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is made up of...

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is made up of chondrin which is secreted by specialized cells called chondrocytes.

233

What does parathyroid hormone do? 

Parathyroid hormone raises plasma calcium levels by stimulating calcium release from bone.

234

What does calcitonin do? 

Calcitonin lowers plasma calcium levels by inhibiting calcium release from bones.  

235

Osteoblasts produce... 

Osteoblasts produce collagen, which when mineralized, forms bone!

236

The ______ consists of a sheath of fibrous cells around a long bone.

Periosteum, It connects the bone to muscles.

237

The vagus nerve is a very important nerve in what nervous system?

The vagus nerve is a very important nerve in the parasympathetic nervous system...it innervates many of the thoracic and abdominal viscera. 

238

What do the pre- and postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system release? 

The preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system release ACh as well as stimulate the adrenal medulla to release EPI.

239

B/w the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, which has the shorter preganglionic axo

The postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system release NE. The sympathetic nervous system has the shorter pregangionic axon (which releases ACh) and a longer postganglionic axon (which releases NE).The parasympathetic nervous system has the longer preganglionic axon (which releases ACh) and a shorter postganglionic axon (which also releases ACh).

240

H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 are examples of _____, which package DNA into ______.

Histones....note that each histone is an octamer b/c 2 of each histone protein does the pacaging.Nucleosomes....these are the first level of chromosome packing.

241

Meiosis General Recap

Errors in meiosis leads to aneuploid.Remember it includes IPMAT [I played Manny's atrocious trumpet.)interphase, anaphase, prophase, metaphase then telophase. same as mitosis.

242

True or false - Crossover occurs during Meoisis II.

False....occurs in Meosis I before anaphase I

243

Electron Transport Chain (ETS begins)

Couples e- donor (i.e. NADH, FADH2) and e- acceptor (O2).

244

True or false -

True.

245

Cancer is caused by the failure of normal cellular control.

...oh-so-true. failure of normal cellular control --> immortal cell --> clumps of immortal cell --> tumor.

246

HIV Virus Structure

Investigate structures on your own. MCAT doesn't go in deeply.

247

What is the rate of reaction dependent on?

Dependent on [enzyme] and [substrate].-->rate-limiting factor is amount of enzyme--> unlimited substrate+correct pH+temp = rate of reaction is proportional to [enzyme]

248

In vivo gene cloning -

Plasmids! They carry circular DNA, enter bacteria, replicate...cultured cells transformed with a human gene manufa

249

The ____ strand features continuous complimentary strand.

leading

250

___ is the removal and replacement of numerous adjacent nucleotides.

Nucleotide excision....think of it as multi-base excision.

251

Translation (3)

(UAC) moves to P-site where it is broken away from tRNA to start polypeptide chain. Next complimentary tRNA loads into A-site.Process continues until one of three stop codons is reached.

252

Define recombinant DNA.

Artificially created or altered DNA....restriction enzyme used to cut DNA at a specific point - sticky ends will hybridize with another DNA.

253

How do we accomplish the central dogma?

...Transcription (DNA --> mRNA) in nucleus...Translation (mRNA --> protein) in ribosomes of cytoplasm or ER...in prokaryotes EVERYTHING is done in the cytoplasm, translation occurs before transcription is finished, and the operon controls series genes.

254

The following images compares RNA & DNA -

Draw them out for practice. The next slide shows everything together.

256

Typical rxn - 

E + S <-- --> ES --> EP <-- --> E + P

258

Sources of damage to DNA can come from ______

...gamma rays, X rays, UV light, chemicals, free radicals

259

Prokaryote Cell wall complex

Gram (+) = thick peptidoglycansGram (-) = not as much peptid. and ion passage is way regulatedFlagella, pili, slime layer might be present

260

What is double-stranded DNA packaged with protein called?

Chromatin.

261

Define 'inhibitor'.

things that decrease/stop catalytic activity by disrupting enzyme's active site.

262

Transcription visuals - take note that this in nucleus.

Be able to name ALL sites involved.

263

Krebs Cycle (3)

Two turns of cycle produces -2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 4CO2

264

Meiosis visual for those who want it! Remember youtube is actually a really good source of animated videos for this, mitosis, the krebs cycle etc...

Be able to explain why two sets of IPMAT are needed.

265

Translation (1)

Begins at 5' cap of mRNA where initiator tRNA is loaded into P-site of small ribosomal subunit....initiation factors to start!

266

How do eukaryotic infecting viruses get past cell membranes?

They are further encased by lipid bilayers with special viral proteins that they stole from host.

267

What do some viruses require to copy themselves?

Reverse transcriptase! (HIV requires this)

268

Y chromosome characteristics are -

Y chromosome, whose presence always produces testes development.Y linked disorders - color blindness, hemophilia...

269

Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes

Questions and fill in the blanks about lots different types of chromatin.

270

What is the diff between RNA and DNA?

RNA has -OH at 2' AND 3'.

271

What types of nitrogenous bases?

Pyrimidines (small 6 membered rings)- cytosine, uracil (replaces thymine in RNA), thyminePurines (6 membered ring fused to 5 membered ring)- adenine, guanine

272

Prokaryote (1)

It's unicellular but can form colonies and act like a multicellular organism if need be.

273

Define and give an example of 'anabolic' rxns.

Build up'Amino acid synthesis

274

Mitosis Recap!

...DNA packaged into chromosomes must replicate....copies of the chromosomes and organelles must migrate to opposite ends of the cell....the cell must physically split into two separate cells....note some say mitosis starts at the prophase.

275

What is glycolosis?

Literally means 'glucose breaking'!...the first stage of aerobic (and anaerobic) respiration. ...takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.

276

Virus (1)

Outside of a living cell, a virus is dormant, but once inside, it takes over the resources of the host cell and begins the production of more virus particles. Viruses are more similar to mechanized bits of information, or robots, than to animal life.

278

And highly coiled chromatin is called ____.

Chromosomes.

279

What reactions help organisms harvest energy?

catabolic and anabolic reactions

280

What corrects incorrect pairing of normal bases?

Mismatch repair.

281

How many different AAs? and codons?

20 different AA64 different codons...start - AUG...stop - UAA, UAG, UGA

282

The lagging strand must be completed in short segments called ____.

Okazaki fragments.

283

What happens to a gene to cause Down's Syndrome?

Trisomy 21...the homologs didn't separate on chromosome 21.

284

Recap Glycolosis (1)

...part of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration....process that splits glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two pyruvate molecules, each of which has three carbons....a 2 ATP investment results in a 4 ATP payoff.

285

_____ removes the RNA primer laid down by DNA polymerase III

DNA polymerase I

286

Talk about Fungi!

one of the 5 kingdom of organisms.NO photosynthesis. CHITIN in cell walls.

287

And the F2 generation is ____.

The kids/progeny of F1

288

Krebs Cycle Recap (2)

...does not directly require oxygen, it can only take place when oxygen is present because it relies on by-products from the electron transport chain, which requires oxygen. ..is therefore an aerobic process.

289

How do enzymes affect rate and equilibrium?

Alter rate of reaction, not position of equilibrium

290

Mitosis Rumble

Note that this is ONLY in somatic cells. Results in 2 identical daughters.Nuclear division + cytokinesis[I played Manny's atrocious trumpet.] Interphase - cell growth, DNA synthesis, chromosome replication, G1, S, and G2

291

Krebs Cycle Recap (1)

...results in 2 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule run through glycolysis....sends energy-laden NADH and FADH2 molecules on to the next step in respiration, the electron transport chain.

292

How does ETS work?

...ATP synthase helps H+ flow back into matrix, producing ATP

293

Specific name for double-helix structure of DNA molecule? Describe, for brownie points.

Watson-Crick Model....5' end of one strand lies to 3' end of another. ...the first nucleotide will have the phosphate on it, and the last will have a free OH...hydrogen bonding!

294

Prokaryote (2)

...no nuclear envelope...complexed with proteins but not histones...plasmids and episomes can be present...cell wall, ribosomes, plasma membrane can be present

295

____ nicks double helix of DNA and releases coiling.

Topoisomerase

296

X chromosome characteristics are -

Normal females contain 2...one is active and the other is a barr body.

297

The outer protein ___ surrounds nucleic acid in virus.

capsid

298

Inheritance follow-up:

"punnet square for a population"

299

What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle?

...based on genetic equilibrium concept

300

More on the Plasma membrane

NO glycolipids or cholesterol

301

What is the Wobble hypothesis?

...that the first two basses bind tRNA

302

Ribosome in translation

Ribosomes are >50 proteins and rRNA. Two units -...small subunit is in charge of joining correct tRNA to mRNA...large subunit catalyzes peptide bond

303

What is linkage?

If 2 genes lie close on a chromosome, chances are they'll be inherited together....far apart genes participate in recombination...linkage is useful for gene mapping

304

Inheritance (2)

Incomplete/partial dominance - heterozygous genotype expressed halfway...RR is red...rr is white...but Rr is pinkCodominance - heterozygous individual expresses BOTH phenotypes (blood typing! i.e. ABO)

305

DNA Replication Step-by-Step

A set of questions and fill in the blanks to be followed.

306

Meiosis

2 stages - MI and MII - and end product of 4 haploid (23N) cells....in males, creates 4 sperm...in females, creates 1 ovum & 3 polar bodiesRemember, XX is girl and XY is boy.

307

True or false -

False.

308

Fission is an example of sexual reproduction in fungi.

...asexual reproduction includes fission, spores, fragmentation, budding

309

Krebs Cycle (2)

Occurs in mitochondrial matrix...2Pyruvate (glycolysis) decarboxylated in mitochondria -> 2acetyl CoA + 2NADH + 2 CO2

310

What is the net yield of ATP?

2ATP....cell invests 2ATP but gets out 4ATP which gives us above net yield answer.

311

What does telomerase do?

...adds telomeres....it's so the LAGGING strand doesn't lose its end bits which are essential

312

Name the four key regions of tRNA.

...aminoacyl attachment site (where AAs are joined to tRNA)...anticodon that binds complementary mRNA...T loop...D loop

313

Talking about Viruses!

...little moochers!...they contain either DNA or RNA to encode genetic information....their genome can either be circular or linear, double or single stranded.

314

In DNA packaging, coiling is not dynamic.

False.

315

Where does the 2NADH go?

Mitochondria....energy in them will be converted to ATP.

316

Virus Structure

Made up of head and tail!...head has capsid and nuclei acid core...tail has the sheath (bacteriophages), plug and tail fibers.

317

Usually this holds true but a single mutation in an oncogene or tumor suppressor gene can spell cancer for an individual.

...damaged proto-oncogene; 1 mutation --> malignancy...tumor suppressor NORMALLY prevents cancer; 2 mutations --> cells grow wildly --> malignancy

318

Express the chemical forumal for glycolosis.

C6H12O6 + 2ATP + 2NAD+2 YIELDS pyruvate + 4ATP + 2NADH

319

Give the five total examples of spontaneous mutations -

1. unstable nucleotide bases2. chemical reactions change bases3. uncorrected errors by DNA polymerase4. mistakes in meiosis5. transposons

320

HIV and retroviruses

HIV is retroviral. maintain their genetic information in the form of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Through the use of an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase, HIV and other retroviruses are capable of producing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from RNA, whereas most cells carry out the opposite process, transcribing the genetic material of DNA into RNA. The activity of the enzyme enables the genetic information of HIV to become integrated permanently into the genome (chromosomes) of a host cell.

321

What are heterochromatin?

HIGHLY coiled, not expressed areas.

322

Name a differences in EUKARYOTIC from prokaryotic protein synthesis.

...1 mRNA makes 1 protein

323

Point mutations are as follows cont'd -

Frameshift mutations....insertion/deletion of nucleotide which changes ENTIRE reading frame. definite mutation....usually leads to a useless or nonfunctioning protein.

324

Mendelian Genetics (1)

Studied pea plants and derived two laws.a) segregation of characteristics - one allele expressed per gameteb) independent assortment - genes for characteristics are independently inherited

325

How do nucleotides polymerize?

3' to 5' direction

326

Translation - take note, this is in cytoplasmic or ER ribosomes.

Again, be able to name and distinguish between P, A, E site etc.

327

Point mutations are as follows -

Base pair substitutions -...transversions: purine --> pyrmidines so thata. no new a.a. (silent mutation)b. new a.a. (missense) may or may not lead to dif.in final protein functionc. premature stop (nonsense)

328

Is ATP used in glycolosis?

Yes....ATP is used to split glucose molecules into a three-carbon compound called pyruvate.

330

What are telomeres?

It's what we call the chromosome end of the DNA sequence

331

What does primase make RNA primer for?

DNA Polymerase III

332

What are competitive inhibitor?

...they compete WITH substrate for enzyme's active site....addition of more substrate speeds up reaction...do NOT alter site

333

Define and give an example of 'catabolic' rxn.

Break down' substrates. Glycolosis

334

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

Mitosis --> identical daughter cells. In somatic.Meiosis --> genetically diverse gametes. In ovaries & testes.

335

Inheritance (1)

Wild type - typical form of an organism in natural conditionsRecessive trait - produced by homozygous recessive allele (ss)Complete dominance - this allele will always be expresses (S!)Penetrance - proportion of individuals expressing a certain phenotype

336

What makes RNA primer?

Primase

337

Translation (2)

mRNA binds at start codon (AUG methionine). tRNA with complimentary anticodon (UAC) loads into A-site.

338

The normal cell control path is:

disruption of growth factors, receptors, signaling pathways (RAS)...dna repair/damage response through the p53 pathway.All of this should induce apoptosis if the cell feels it can't save itself.

339

Transcription (1)

...start with promoter regions which are "conserved sequences".

340

What is the Krebs Cycle?

...Helps in chemical conversion of carbs, fats, and proteins into CO2 and H2O to make energy!...part two of the energy harvest!

341

DNA Synthesis/Replication

Know ALL chemicals involved - DNA polymerase I and III, topoisomerase, RNA primer etc...

342

How can you calculate allele frequency based on the frequency of an autosomal recessive (AR) disease?

p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1...p - frequency of dominant allele...q - frequency of recessive allele

343

Enzyme Structure and Function I (ESF begins)

Enzymes are highly selective catalysts for biochemical reactions; remain unchanged.

344

What happens while pyruvate is transported to mitochondria?

...hree-carbon pyruvate is converted into the two-carbon molecule called acetate...coenzyme A is added on to create one of the reactants of this cycle!

345

Name 2 differences in PROKARYOTIC from eukaryotic protein synthesis.

...mRNA is not spliced b/c no introns. polycistronic....because no 5' cap, ribosome binds at ribosome-binding sequence (upstream to AUG)

346

How do they match up? (complimentary bases)

C&G, A&T...rod - bacilli, spiral - spirilli, round - cocci...can be aerobic or anaerobic...usually in symbiotic relationship w/something else...reproduction = binary fission

347

The ___ is the first generation bred from two closely related species.

F1

348

Mendelian Genetics (2)

Phenotype - external lookGenotype - internal genetic maeupGene - region of DNA that controls hereditary characteristic

349

What unifies all the Okazaki fragments?

DNA ligase

350

Name the two types of bases - and relegate the five nitrogenous bases to each type.

...Purine - A, G, U...Pyrimidine - C T

351

Fungi structure

...differ in level of cellular organism (1 nucleus vs. 1000 nuclei, multicell-vs-unicell)...asexual reproduction, some can choose sexual in addition...generally haploid for most of life cycle

352

Now let's talk about chromosomes and cancer.

...Region of mitotic chromosome holding sister chromosomes together.

353

Define a centromere.

...Also is site of kinetochore formation & mitotic spindle binds

354

____ is the removal and replacement of damaged bases.

Base excision....note that DNA glycosylase identifies damaged bases and DNA polymerase beta replaces them.

355

Meiosis -

Meiosis I results in two independent cells. One cell contains the maternal homologous pair, with a small segment of the paternal chromosome from crossover. The other cell contains the paternal homologous pair, likewise with a small segment of the maternal chromosome.

356

Mitosis Rumble

Prophase - chromosomes tighten, nucleoli disappears, centrioles move to opp. ends and mitotic spindle forms.

357

True or false:

False.

358

one animo acid can be associated with multiple tRNAs.

...specific tRNAs for each AA

359

Transcription (2)

...double helix opens so one DNA strand (determined by promoter) can be template for RNA polymerase

360

In vitro gene cloning -

PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is used for DNA replication for analysis.

361

Viruses - bacteriophages in depth

Lytic (virus replicates madly so that bacterial cell wall bursts)Lysogenic (incorporates itself into host genome so that it is replicated with host DNA)

362

Mitosis Rumble cont'd

Metaphase - nuclear membrane dissolves, microtubules attach to kinetochores and spindle fibers align chromosomes along metaphase plate

363

Where are transcripts 'processed'?

Nucleus....introns are spliced out while exons are kept...poly-A sequence at 3' end and 5''cap added for stability so it''s recognized as mature/ready for translation

364

What is the citric acid cycle?

The Krebs Cycle!...don't be fooled or misled. they refer to the same thing and are used interchangeably....it's because The Krebs cycle begins when acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate interact to form the six-carbon compound citric acid.

365

How does ETS work?

H+ ions are transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the inetermembrane space....creates pH gradient

366

How many types of RNA are there?

Three....mRNA - messenger. DNA is transcribed to mRNA in nucleus {template for protein!}...rRNA - ribosomal....tRNA - transfer - brings specific amino acids (AA) to ribosome for protein synthesis.

367

Recap Glycolosis (2)

...the rest of aerobic respiration takes place in the mitochondria BUT glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell....does NOT require oxygen

368

A ____ is the breeding of the F1 and another pp.

Back cross

369

Nucleotide Structure & Function - What are the three components of nucleotides? (NSF)

1)Pentose (5 carbon ring) sugar. {DNA or RNA}2)Nitrogenous bases on the 1' carbon of pentose (C,U,T, A, G)3)One to three phosphate groups attached to 5' carbon

370

Mitosis Rumble

Anaphase - pull apart! chromatids polarize and spindle fibers become indistinctTelophase - the chromatids are on opposite ends, nuclear membrane forms, spindle fibers disappearRemember cytokinesis! {separation of cytoplasm, completes division}

371

True or false - Circular DNA is found only in prokaryotes.

True.

372

Chromosomal mutations are serious.

Could be brought about by deletion, insertion, duplication OR translocation....human disorders:a. cri du chatb. CML leukemiac. Down syndrome

373

Retroviruses

ssRNA...transduction is the act of transfering the viral DNA.

374

Krebs Cycle - Visual!

Make sure you know what the end products are.

375

Virus structure - revisiting the REGULAR animal virus

Please note that I only described ingredients for bacteriophage prior to this.

377

How to nucleotides polymerize in 3' to 5' direction?

...3' carbon attached to a -OH group...5' carbon attached to phosphate

378

Meiosis -

The two cells that move from meiosis I into meiosis II are haploid—each have 23 replicated chromosomes.Separation of sister chromatids YIELDS 4 haploid cells.

379

What are euchromatin?

Areas of chromosome-expressing genes; LESS tightly packed during interphase.

380

____ is the breeding of a PP with a pp individual.

Test cross

381

How do enzymes work?

Enzyme's active site specifically binds substrate.Enzyme-Substrate complex changes shape

382

What are mutations? Where do they occur? Why do they occur?

...heritable changes in DNA. They can be advantageous or deleterious....in both germ and somatic cells....either induced by mutagens or spontaneous.

383

DNA Synthesis!

DNA --> RNA --> protein

384

What proofreads each added nucleotide?

Exonuclease

385

What are noncompetitive inhibitor?

...alter the enzyme site by binding to another portion of it (NOT active site)...substrate can 'no longer fit'...addition of more substrate WILL NOT speed reaction

386

What is the direction?

5' to 3'...until terminator sequence is reached.

387

How many binding sites does a ribosome have?

Four....one for the mRNA codon...three for the tRNAs: the A site (where tRNA binds), P site(break AA-tRNA bond and make AA-AA bond), the E site (easy to remember as EXIT site for tRNA)

388

What's an extremely famous and detrimental virus that doubles as an STD?

HIV.

389

Bacilli

Rod Shaped

390

Folic Acid

No letter

391

Centriole

centriole /cen·tri·ole/ (sen´tre-ol) either of the two cylindrical organelles located in the centrosome and containing nine triplets of microtubules arrayed around their edges; centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the cell during cell division and serve to organize the spindles. They are capable of independent replication and of migrating to form basal bodies.

392

When did Redi live

1627-1697

393

Nucleolus

Site of ribosome assembly.

394

Villi

(Singular:villus). Folds of the intestinal mucosa that project into the lumen of the intestine; vili serve to increase the surface area of the intestine for absorption.

395

Adaptation

The development of characteristics that enable an organism to survive and reproduce in its habitat.

396

Hypothalamus

involved in maintaining body homeostasis. also controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland.

397

Delta Pancreatic Cells produce ________ which regulates its glucagon and insulin secretions

Somatostatin

398

Aerobic Respiration

Respiration that requires oxygen.Pyruvate and NADH pass through the outter membrane via facilitated diffusion.Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA producing NADH nad CO2.Location: Mitochondrial Matrix

399

Thyroid

T3, T4 and Calcitonin productionRegulated by TSH

400

Anaphase II

Separation of chromatids (n)

401

Phenotype

The physical characterisitcs resulting from the genotype. Phenotypes are usually described as dominant or recessive.

402

Hemophilia

An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.

403

Platelets

Extremely small pseudo-cells in the blood, important for clotting. They are not true cells, but are broken-off bits of a larger cell (a megakaryocyte).

404

Submucosa

The layer of connective tissue directly under the mucosa of an open body cavity.

405

Z lines

The ends of a saromere.

406

Aldosterone

Adrenal cortex; Reabsorption of Na+ and passive reabsorption of water into nephron; Rise in blood volume & blood pressure; Stimulates secretion of K+ and H+ into nephron -> excreted into urine; Regulated by renin-angiotensin system

407

Glial cell

commonly called neuroglia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.

408

Pelvic Girdle Bones

Pubic, ileum, and ischium

409

The cochlea and the semicircular canals make up the _______ ear.

Inner.

410

Peroxisomes

Organelles that consist of a membrane-lined vesicle that typically contains catalase which generates hydrogen peroxide used to detoxify various organi molecules; Involved in beta oxidation of fatty acids and are involved in photresperation and the glyoxylate cycle in plant cells

411

Vertebrata

A subphylum in the phylum chrodata.

412

Structural Proteins

Made from long polymers.Maintain and add strength to the cellular and matrix structure.

413

Transduction

When the capsid of bacteriophage mistakenly encapsulate a DNA frag of a host cell and then these virions infect the new bacterium injecting harmless bacterial DNA frags in stead of virulent viral DNA fragments.Transfer of DNA via a virus.

414

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

thyroitropinStimulates the thyroid to release T3, T4 using cAMP.T3 and T4 have a negative feedback effect on TSH release.

415

Expiration

Relaxation of diaphram and external intercostalsStabilaztion of rib cage by internal intercostals and contraction of abdominal muscles, plus elasticity of lung, returns the organ to normal pre-repiratory resting phase.Generally speaking normal respiration does not involve much utilization of abdominal muscles untill ventilation exceeds 40L/minute. By contracting the abdominal muscles the contents of the abdomen are pushed upwards exerting force on the diaphram helping to force exhalation.

416

Resolution

A function the reproductive system (conrolled by the sympathetic nervous system) that returns the body to its normal resting state after sexual arousal and orgasm.

417

Phagocytosis

The non-specific uptake of solid material by a cell accomplished by englufing the particle with plasma membrane and drawing it into the cell.

418

Diencephalon

The portion of theforebrain that includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.

419

Gonadotropins

Anterior pituitary topic hormones FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing homeon) that stimulates the gonads (testes and ovaries) to produce gametes and to secrete sex steroids.

420

Chemoreceptor

A sensory receptor that responds to specific chemicals. Some examples are gustatory (taste) receptors, olfactory (smell) receptors, and central chemoreceptors (responds to pH changes in teh cerebrospinal fluid).

421

Autotroph

An organism that makes its own, typically using CO2 as a carbon source.

422

Sister chromatid

Identical copies of a chromosome, produced during DNA replication and held together at the centromere Sister chromatids are separated during anaphase of mitosis.

423

Prosthetic group

A non-protein, but organic, molecule (such as vitamin) that is covalently bound to an enzyme as part of the active site.

424

Interneuron

A neuron found completely within the central nervous system. Interneous typically connect sensory and motor neurons, especially in reflex arcs.

425

electrical synapses

uncommon, composed of gap junctions between cells. in cardiac muscle, visceral smooth muscle, and very few neurons in the CNS. transmit chemicals much faster than chemical synapses and in both directions.

426

Chemotaxis

Movement that is directed by chemical gradients, such as nutrients or toxins. (seen in some bacteria)

427

Number of bones in the Appendicular skeleton

126

428

Jejunum

Second part of the small intestine, about equally concerned with digestion and absorption

429

The Ductus Venosus shunts blood away from the ________.

LIVER.

430

Gastric Glands and Pyloric Glands are in the ______

Stomach

431

Mitochondria

Organelle composed of a smooth outer membrane and a folded finger-like inner membrane. Space inside the inner membrane is called the matrix. Synthesizes most of the cell's ATP.

432

Type II B Fibers

Fast-twitch B (White)Fatiue quickly.Contain large amounts of glycogen and low amounts of myogloboin.

433

amphipathic

The characteristic of a molecule that has both polar (hydrophilic) and non-polar (hydrophobic) regions.

434

Proteins

Amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.Polypeptides.Only major nutrient containing Nitrogen. 

435

Ribosomes

The cellular complexes that direct the synthesis of proteins.

436

Phospholipid

Composed of a phosphate group, two fatty acid chains, and a glycerol backbone.Phosphate is polar, fatty acids are nonpolar.

437

Cerebrum (Cerebral Cortex)

Stores memories and processes thoughts

438

Arousal

A function in the reproductive system, controlled by
the parasympathetic nervous system, that includes
erection (via dilation of erectile arteries) and
lubrication.

439

Telophase II

Four daughter cells result from original parent cell. Cytokinesis. (n)

440

Pleural pressure

The pressure in the (theoretical) space between the lung surface and the inner wall of the chest cavity.

441

Vein

A blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart chambers. Veins do not have muscular walls, have valves to ensure that blood flows in one direction only, and are typically low-pressure vessels.

442

Spermatid

A haploid but immature cell resulting from the second meiotic division f spermatogenesis. Spermatids undergo significant physical changes to become mature sperm (spermatozoa).

443

Iris

A pigmented membrane found just in from the lens of the eye. In the center of iris is the pupil, a hole through which light enters the eyeball. The iris regulates the diameter of the pupil in response to the brightness of light.

444

Intermediate filaments

Cytoskeletal filaments with a diameter in between that of the microtubule and the microfilament. Intermediate filaments are composed of many different proteins and tend to play structural roles in cells.

445

Antiporter

A carrier protein that transports two molecules acrss the plasma membrane in opposite directions.

446

Bicarbonate

HCO3-. THis ion results from the dissociation of carbonic acid, together wiht carbonic acid forms the the major blood buffer system. Bicarbonate is also secreted by teh pancreas to neutralize stomach acid in the intestines.

447

Poly-A tail

A string of several hundred adenine nucletodies added to the 3' end of the eukaryotic mRNA.

448

Metaphase II

The second phase of meiosis II. Metaphase II is identical to mitotic metaphase, except that the number of chromosomes was reduced by half during meiosis I.

449

Bohr effect

The tendency of certain factors to stablize the hemoglobin in the tense conformation, thus reducing its affinity for oxygen and enhancing the relase of oxygen to the tissues. The factors include increased PCO2, increase temperature, increased bisphosphoglycerate (BPG), and decreased pH. Note that the Bohr effect shifts the oxy-hemolobin saturation curve to the right.

450

Genetic code

The 'language' of a molecular biology that specifies which amino acid corresponds to which three-nucleotide group (codon).

451

Endocrine gland

A ductless gland that secretes a hormone into the blood

452

F (fertility) factor

A bacterial extrachromosal elent that allows the bacterium to initati conjugation. Bacteria that possess teh F factor are known as F+ 'males'.

453

Partial pressure

The contribution of an individual gas to the total ppressure of a mixture of gases. Partial pressures are used to describe the amounts of the various gases carried in the bloodstream.

454

Gram-positive bacteria

Bacteria that have a thick peptido glycan cell wall, and no outer membrane. They stain very darkly (purple) in Gram stain.

455

Cytosine

One of the four aromatic bases found in DNA and RNA. Cytosine is a pyrimidine; it pairs with guanine.

456

Action potential

a spike of electrical discharge that travels along the membrane of a cell.

457

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

a special type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum found in smooth and striated muscle. lumen is filled with Ca2+ ions

458

Dense connective tissue

Connective tissue with large amounts of either collagen fibers (making them strong) or elastic fibers, or both. Dense tissues are typically strong (e.g. bone, cartilage, tendons, etc.)

459

Colon

Part of the large intestine which is responsible for absorbing water and salts

460

The higher the pressure of O2 the _____ the hemoglobin will be willing to give up its O2.

MORE.

461

TATA Binding Protein

Protein involved in eukaryotes for intiation of transcripiton of at least some genes

462

Glycerophospholipids

Contain a glycerol linked to two fatty acyl groups and one phosphate group

463

B cell

A type of lymphocyte that can recognize (bind to) an antigen and secrete an antibody specific for that antigen. When activated by binding an antigen, these mature into plasma cells (that secrete antibody) and memory cells (that patrol the body for future encounters with that antigen).

464

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

Contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

465

Gram staining

Used to prepare bacteria for viewing under a microscope.Stains gram positive (purple) and negative (pink) differently.

466

Central Nervous System

Consists of the interneuron and support tissue within the brain and spinal cord.Function is to integrate nervous signals between sensory and motor neurons.Interneurons

467

Comparative Anatomy

Evidence of the descent of separate species from a common ancestor can be found by comparing anatomical structures (as well as by other means such as examining DNA and the fossil record). Homologous structures are ones that are anatomically similar but may not serve similar functions. For instance, the forelimbs of all mammals are homologous structures since they are constructed from the same skeletal elements even though they may serve vastly different functions in different species.

468

Nucleotide functions in cells

1. Nucleotide triphosphates transport energy2. Nucleotide triphosphates serve as monomers for the synthesis of RNA and DNA3. Nucleotides may be modified into chemical signals for use within a cell(cyclic AMP)

469

noncompetitive inhibitor

1. molecule that inhibits the activity of an enzyme by binding to a regulatory site on the enzyme, thereby changing the conformation of the enzyme.2. because these inhibitors do not directly compete with the substrate, increasing the substrate concentration usually has little effect on the catalytic rate

470

Nucleosome

A structure composed of two coils of DNA wrapped around an octet of histone proteins. The nucleosome is the primary form of packagin of eukaryotic DNA.

471

Log phase

The period of exponential growth of bacterial population.

472

Pulmonary edema

The collection of fluid in the alveoli, particularly dangerous because it impedes gas exchange. Common causes of pulmonary edema are increased pulmonary blood pressure or infection of the respiratory system.

473

Local autoregulation

The ability of tissues to regulate their own blood flow in the absence of neural stiulation. THis is generally accomplished via metabolic wastes (such as CO2) that act as vasodilators.

474

Facultative anaerobe

An organism that will use oxygen (aerobic metabolism) if it is available, and that can ferment (anaerobic metabolism) if it is not.

475

Ciliary muscles

Muscles that help focus light on teh retin by controlling the curvature of the lens of the eye.

476

Brush border enzymes

Enzymes secreted by the mucosal cells lining the intestine. The brush border enzymes are disaccharides adn dipeptidases taht digest the smallest peptides and carbohydrates into their respective monomers.

477

Functional synctium

A tissue in which the cytoplasms of the cells are connected by gap junctions, allowing the cells to function as a unit. Cardiac and smooth muscle tissues are examples of functional synctiums.

478

Urinary sphincter

The valve that controls the release of urine from the bladder. It has an internal part made of smooth muscle (thus involuntary) and an external part made of skeletal muscle (thus voluntary).

479

Adductor

A muscle that moves a limb toward the center of a body.

480

Ductus arteriorsus & foramen ovale

shunt blood from the lungs

481

Complement system

A group of blood proteins that bind non-specifically to the surface proteins of foreign cells (such as bacteria), ultimately leading to the destruction of the foreign cell - part of the innate immunity.

482

The Ectoderm layer includes: _____

Integument, hair/nails/skin. The Lens of the Eye, and the nervous system.

483

Osteoblasts are regulated by…

Osteoblasts are regulated by parathyroid hormone

484

and osteoclasts are regulated by...

osteoclasts are regulated by osteoblasts.The 3 kinds of joints:

485

Name the 3 kinds of joints and describe them.

 1.Immovable joints connect bones that do not move relative to each other, such as bones of the skull.2.Partly movable joints connect bones that exhibit some flexibility of movement and usually have cartilage b/w them, such as bones of the vertebral column.3.Synovial joints allow a wide range of movement and are lubricated by synovial fluid.

486

Anal sphincter

The valve that controls the release of feces from the rectum. It has an internal part made of smooth muscle (thus involuntary) and an external part made of skeletal muscle (thus voluntary).

487

Phosphodiester Bond

The bond formed between C3 of one deoxyribose and C5 of the other which creates a sugar-phosphate backbone of a single strand of DNA with 5'->3' directionality.

488

Anterioir pituitary gland

Also known as the adenohypophysis, the anterior
pituitary is made of gland tissue and makes and
secretes six different homrones: FSH, LH, ACTH,
prolactin, TSH, and growth hormone. The anterior
pituitary is controlled b yreleasing and inhibiting
factors from the hypothalamus

489

Mutations

A mutation is a change in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene. Mutations can occur spontaneously as a result of errors during DNA replication, repair, or recombination. Ionizing radiation and certain chemicals can also cause mutations.

490

A site

Amino-acyl tRNA site; the site on a ribosome where a new amino acid is added to a growing peptide.

491

Secondary sex characteristics

The set of adult characteristics that develop during puberty under the control of the sex steroids. In males the secondary sex characteristics include enlargement and maturation of the genitalia, growth of facial, body, and pubic hair, increased muscle ma

492

Parasympathetic nervous system

The division of the autonomic nervous system known as the 'resting and digesting' system. It causes a general decrease in body activities such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure, and an increase in blood flow to the GI tract and

493

Venous returns

The amount of blood returned to heart by the vena cavae.

494

Posterior pituitary gland

Also known as the neurohyophysis, the posterior pituitary is made of nervous tisssue and stores and secretes two hormones made by the hypothlamus; oxtytocin and ADH. The posterior pituitary is controlled by action potentials from the hypothalamus.

495

Epididymis

A long, coiled duct on the outside of the testis in which sperm mature.

496

Convergent evolution

A form of evolution in which different organisms are placed into the same environment and exposed to teh same selection pressures. This causes the organisms to evolve along similar lines. As a result, they may share functional, but not structural similari

497

Atrioventricular (AV) node

The second major node of the cardiac conduction system (after the SA node). The cardiac impulse is delayed slightly at teh AV node, allowing the ventricles to contract just after the atria contract.

498

Left atrium

one of the four chambers in the human heart, receiving oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins and pumping it into the left ventricle.

499

Pyridoxine (B6) Physiological Role

Coenzyme in amino acid and fat metabolism

500

Gases move from areas of ____ partial pressure to areas of ______ partial pressure.

Higher to LOWER