Mechanism of Learning/Memory Flashcards Preview

Neur > Mechanism of Learning/Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mechanism of Learning/Memory Deck (51):
1

these are good for study because we can select random mutations and study effects on behavior

drosophila

2

these are good to be used because they are similar anatomy to humans and are used to study explicit memory

mice

3

aplysia reflexive withdrawal of gill following stimulation of siphone

implicit memory

4

learning to ignore a repeated stimulus

habituation

5

repeated stimulation of siphon results in reduction of epsp in interneuron and motor neuron, and reduced withdrawal of the gills lasting minutes

short term habituation

6

continued stimulation of siphone results in habituation of gill reflex lasting weeks

long term habituation

7

decrease in the number of synaptic contacts between sensory and motor neurons requires blank

protein synthesis

8

decreasing the number of synaptic contacts is called blank and is in long term habituation

pruning,

9

repeated exposure to harmful stimulus causes heightened response/enhancement of reflex

sensitization

10

in sensitization, a blank neuron stimulated by a tail shock releases blank onto presynaptic terminal

facilitator, serotonin

11

serotonin causes an increase in blank which activates blank

cAMP, PKA

12

closing K channels too soon causes blank

prolonged depolarization

13

increase glutamate from sensory cell

heterosynaptic facilitation

14

learning to associate one type of stimulus with another

classical conditioning

15

converting short term memory to long term

consolidation

16

consolidation involves changes in gene expression and blank

protein synthesis

17

high cAMP leads to prolonged activation of blank which activates blank transciption facotr which codes for blank

PKA, CREB, gene expression

18

short term memory storage has a change in the amount of nt release from blank, alter blank influx, and change in opening/closing of blank

presynaptic cell, calcium, K+ channels

19

long term memory storage changes the number of blank which leads to gene expression and blank which takes a while to occur

synapses, protein synthesis

20

gene products generated during long term storage can only be used where

at that specific synapse

21

mutation of fruit flies that is a defective cAMP phosphodiesterase

dunce mutation

22

mutation that is defective Ca dependent adenylate cyclase

rutabaga mutation

23

cAMP pathway is very important for blank

learning/memory

24

used for studies of implicit learned motor behavior, and can easily record from neural circuits

aplysia

25

short term habituation is due to blank of synaptic vesicles

depletion

26

long term habituation is due to blank

synaptic pruning

27

sensitization in short term memory is due to cAMP, PKA signaling where blank increases

nt release

28

long term sensitization is characterized by increased blank

number of synapses

29

main explicit memory circuit

hippocampus

30

donald hebb said that explicit learning occurs if a synapse is strengthened every time presynaptic and postsynaptic activity is blank

correlated

31

long lasting increase in epsp amplitude

long term potentiation

32

glutamate binding alone is insufficient to trigger opening of blank receptors due to blank block

nmda, mg

33

large depolarization of postsynaptic cell membrane needed to expel Mg block via

electrostatic repulsion

34

receptor is only functional when bound to glutamate and cell membrane is already depolarized

coincidence detection

35

calcium influx via nmda receptors if vital for blank

long term potentiation

36

depolarization is not large enough to expel Mg block so no ltp

normal synaptic transmission

37

activation of multiple inputs generates depolarzation large enough to expel mg block so ltp occurs

cooperativitiy

38

simultaneous strong and weak inputs and creates ltp for both synapses

associativity

39

unstimulated synapse does not undergo ltp (this ensures memories are selective and only formed at active synapses)

synapse specificity

40

phase of ltp that has insertion of ampa receptors and no stimulation of presynaptic cell

early

41

phase of ltp that has activation of transcription factors, protein synthesis, and new connections

late

42

nmda receptors are needed for ltp in blank and blank memory

hippocampus, spatial

43

experiment that shows important of nmda receptors

morris water maze

44

overexpression of nmda subunit can cause quicker blank in mammals

learning

45

reduction in synaptic strength following prolonged low frequency stimulation

long term depression

46

modest depolarization of postsynaptic cell is less effective at removing blank due to a low blank

mg block, ca influx

47

presynaptic memory storage is due to synaptic vesicle blank or increased blank

depletion, nt release

48

postsynaptic memory storage is due to insertion of blank and there is blank signaling to presynaptic cell

ampa receptors, no

49

production of new neurons in hippocampus

neurgenesis

50

increase neurogenesis increases blank

learning/memory

51

hearing loss is associated with blank neurogenesis and cognitive decline

decreased