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Flashcards in Mechanisms Deck (31)
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1

Mechanism for acyl chloride to carboxylic acid

Nucleophilic addition elimination

H2O

2

Acyl chloride to amide

Nucleophilic addition elimination

NH3

3

Acyl chloride to N-substituted amide

Nucleophilic addition elimination

CH3NH2

4

Acyl chloride to Ester

Nucleophilic addition elimination

CH3OH

5

Carboxylic acid + alcohol

Esterification

Conc H2SO4

6

Ester to carboxylic acid and alcohol

Acid hydrolysis

H2O and conc H2SO4

7

Ester to sodium salt

Basic hydrolysis

NaOH

8

Benzene to a phenyl ketone

Electrophilic substitution

AlCl3 catalyst

9

Benzene to nitrobenzene

Electrophilic substitution

Conc HNO3
Conc H2SO4

10

Nitrobenzene to amino benzene

What is produced

Reduction
Sn and H2

Amino benzene and H2O

11

Anime to quarternary ammonium salt

Nucleophilic substitution
Excess haloalkane

12

Alcohol to ketone

Oxidation

Acidified potassium dichromate

13

Which mechanism uses NaBH4?

Nucleophilic addition

Eg reduction of a ketone to an alcohol

14

Ketone to nitrile

Nucleophilic additon

KCN and HCl

15

Nitrile to amine

Reduction / catalytic hydrogenation

H2 and Ni

ONLY USE [H] IF THEY SAY otherwise use H2

16

Ketone to alcohol

Nucleophilic addition
Reduction
NaBH4

17

Alkene to haloalkane

Electrophilic addition
HBr

18

Alkene to dibromo-haloalkane

Electrophilic addition
Br2

19

Haloalkane to alkene

Elimination
NaoH
Hot dissolved in ethanol

20

Haloalkane to nitrile

Nucleophilic substitution
KCN aqueous

21

Haloalkane to amine

Nucleophilic substitution
Excess NH3

22

Why excess NH3

To prevent further substitution

23

Haloalkane to alcohol

Nucleophilic substitution
NaOH
Warm aqueous

24

Alcohol to aldehyde

Oxidation
Acidified potassium dichromate
Distillation

25

Aldehyde to carboxylic acid

Oxidation
Acidified potassium dichromate
Reflux

26

Alcohol to carboxylic acid

Oxidation
Acidified potassium dichromate
Reflux

27

Alkene to alkyl hydrogen sulphate

Electrophilic addition

Conc H2SO4

28

Alkyl hydrogen sulphate to alcohol

Hydrolysis

H2O

29

Alcohol to alkene

Elimination (dehydration)

Conc H2SO4

30

Alkene to alcohol

Electrophilic addition
H2O and conc H2SO4

Also called hydration