Mechanisms of Antibiotic Action Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mechanisms of Antibiotic Action Deck (17):
1

B-lactams: cephalosporins, penicillins, carbapenems, monobactams

Interfere with cell wall cross-linking through interaction with penicillin-binding proteins (transpeptidases); autolysis

2

Glycopeptides: Vancomycin

Interfere with incorporation of new subunits into growing murein chains

3

Imidazoles: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole

Blocks synthesis of ergosterol required for fungal cell wall integrity

4

Echinocandins: caspofungin, micafungin

Blocks B-glucan synthesis, a major constituent of fungal cell walls

5

Lipopeptide antibiotics: daptomycin

Forms channels in cell membranes of gram-positive bacteria resulting in K+ leakage and metabolic death

6

Polyene: amphotericin B

Bind to sterols in eukaryotic cell membranes, leading to membrane leakiness and, at high levels lysis

7

Sulfonamides: sulfamethoxazole

Competitive inhibitor of dihydropteroate synthesis; blocks synthesis of tetrahydrofolate and sulfadiazine cell-linked metabolic pathways

8

Trimethoprim

Inhibition of bacterial dihydrofolate reductatse

9

Aminoglycosides: gentamycin, tobramycin, streptomycin, amikacin, neomycin

Bind to 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes; cause translational misreading and inhibit elongation of protein chains; kill by blocking initiation of protein synthesis

10

Macrolides: erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clincamycin

Bind to ribosome 50S subunit; inhibit protein synthesis at chain elongation step

11

Ketolides: telithromycin

Bind to ribosome 50S subunit; inhibit protein synthesis at chain elongation step

12

Streptogramins: dalfopristin, quinopristin

Bind to ribosome 50S subunit; inhibit protein synthesis at chain elongation step

13

Chloramphenicol

Bind to ribosome 50S subunit; inhibit protein synthesis at chain elongation step

14

Rifampin

Binds to bacterial RNA polymerase and blocks transcription at initiation step

15

Metronidazole, nitrofurans

Partially reduced nitro groups give addition products on DNA that lead to cidal strand breakage

16

Flouroquinolones: ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin

Interfere with DNA replication by inhibiting the action of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase

17

Nalidixic acid

Interfere with DNA replication by inhibiting the action of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase