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Flashcards in Lab Glossary Deck (71):
1

Agenesis

Complete absence of an organ or its anlage

2

Anthracosis

Accumulation of carbon pigment (dust) in tissues

3

Apoptosis

A form of cell death which is endogenously controlled or "programmed" in order to obviate the host inflammatory reaction to the necrotic cell.

-Activation of Caspases

- Results in tissue regression

- Death of single or group of cells (apoptotic bodies)

4

Atherosclerosis

Accumulation of fat and connective tissue within the wall of arteries, often causing progressive narrowing of the lumen and decreased blood flow to tissues

5

Atrophy

Shrinkage in the size of the cell by loss of cell substance. The term is also used for a reduction in size of an organ due to loss of cells.

6

Autolysis

"Self-destruction" of normal tissue after death, produced by release of lysosomal or digestive enzymes

7

Caseous necrosis

Conversion of necrotic cells to an amorphous mass grossly resembling cheese. Histologically, appearance is as amorphous granular debris composed of fragmented coagulated cells (Think granulomas)

8

Cirrhosis

Liver disease characterized pathologically by loss of normal microscopic lobular architectured with fibrosis and nodular regeneration

9

Coagulative Necrosis

Conversion of the cell to an acidophilic, opaque structure with preservation of the basic cellular shape and outline

10

Cushing's Syndrome

A constellation of clinical findings caused by excessive blood levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones due to a tumor of the pituitary gland

11

Denervation

Disruption of normal neural supply, due to traumatic or degenerative damage to the peripheral nerve or central nervous system motor neurons.

12

Diabetes mellitus

A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, caused by relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and associated with damage to many organs and accelerated atherosclerosis

13

Systrophic calcification

Deposition of calcium (and phosphate) in abnormal, damaged, or necrotic tissues. Serum levels of calcium and phosphate normal

14

Edema

Abnormal accumulation of fluid witin the interstitium of an organ, tissue or body cavity. This often leads to an increase in tissue or organ volume and weight

15

Enzymatic fat necrosis

Caused by escape of pancreatic lipase into fat tissue. Released fatty acids combine with calcium to create calcium soaps

16

Eosinophilic

Areas of a cell or tissue that stain with eosin, a rose-colored dye. This dye usually stains the cytoplasm of a cell

17

Fatty change

A reversible accumulation of fat within parenchymal cells, usually liver (fat vacuoles within cells).

18

Ferritin

An iron-protein complex. Chief form of intracellular iron storage present in many types of cells.

19

Fibrinoid necrosis

Conversion of necrotic tissue to an amorphous, fibrillar eosinophilic mass that resembles fibrin (think hairy heart/bread and butter)

20

Gangrenous necrosis

Not a specific form of necrosis. Term used clinically to describe necrosis of tissue in an extremity

21

"Dry" Gangrene

Tissue appears black grossly; not accompanied by putrefaction

22

"Wet" Gangrene

Necrotic tissue secondarily invaded by bacteria, resulting in liquefactive necrosis (putrefaction)

23

Hematoxyphilic

Areas of a cell or tissue that stain with hematoxylin, a blue-purple crystalline stain. This stain usually stains the nucleus of a cell or leaked DNA

24

Hemochromatosis

A genetic disease resulting in excess accumulation of parenchymal cell iron due to increased iron adsorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This is associated with damage of multiple tissues or organs, especially the liver and endocrine glands

25

Hemorrhage

Leakage of blood from a blood vessel

26

Hemosiderin

Aggregates of denatured ferritin, found only in reticuloendothelial cells under normal conditions

27

Hemosiderosis

Accumulation of iron in tissue parenchyma or macrophages often secondary to multiple blood transfusions, local bleeding, or congestion. This accumulation does not usually cause tissue damage

28

Hyaline Change

Denatured proteins that appear homogenous and pink in H&E stained tissue sections

29

Hyperplasia

An increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue

30

Hypertrophy

An increase in the size of cells in an organ or tissue

31

Hypoplasia

Incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue

32

Hypoxemia

Critical decrease in oxygenation of the blood

33

Infarct

A localized area of tissue necrosis, caused by interruption to blood supply

34

Ischemia

Deficiency of blood supply to a tissue or organ usually due to functional constriction or anatomic obstruction of a blood vessel

35

Karyolysis

Dissolution of the nucleus as the result of the hydrolytic action of DNAse

36

Karyorrhexis

Dissolution of the nucleus characterized by its breaking up into small basophilic clumps.

37

Lipofuscin

A dust-like golden brown pigment formed by lipid-protein complexis which represents fatty breakdown products of cells resulting from cell necrosis or involution

38

Liquefactive necrosis

Tissue becomes softened and liquefied leaving a cavity

39

Metaplasia

A change from one mature type of tissue to another, usually on mucosal surfaces

- Usually due to stress

- Potentially reversible

40

Metastatic calcification

Deposition of calcium (and phosphate) in previously normal tissues resulting from blood concentrations of calcium and/or phosphate exceeding their solubility product

41

Putrefaction

Bacterially-induced tissue decomposition

42

Pyknosis

Shrinkage of the nucleus to a small, dense, wrinkled mass of tightly pack chromatin

43

Regeneration

Regrowth of normal tissue. Only labile cells and stable cells regenerate; regenration does not occur in permanent cells (cardiac muscle and neurons)

44

Torsion

Torsion is seen when a mobile organ twists, obstructing its blood supply and/or drainage

45

Transferrin

A serum glycoprotein that binds and transports iron in the circulation

46

Abscess

A localized collection of neutrophils and necrotic debris (pus) in a cavity

47

Acute Inflammation

Immediate response to injury characterized by vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, presence of an exudate, and emigration of leukocytes (neutrophils)

-Five characteristics (Redness, Swelling, Heat, Pain, Loss of function)

48

Blood

The fluid in the circulatory system

49

Congestion (hyperemia)

Increase in teh volume of blood in blood vessels or tissue or an organ due to impaired venous drainage or increased arterial pressure

50

Consolidation

Air spaces of lung filled with inflammatory exudate, giving lung a solid, rather than spongy appearance

51

Cytokine

A hormone-like mediator produced by inflammatory cells

52

Edema

The accumulation of excess fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities

53

Effusion

An exudate or transudate that has passed into a part or tissue

54

Expectoration

Cough which produces sputum, typically a purulent (pus) exudate

55

Exudate

Protein rich fluid, often containing inflammatory cells and cellular debris

56

Fibrinous exudate

An exudate containing a large amount of fibrin. it is usually found upon inflammation of serosal or mucosal surfaces

57

Filtrate

A liquid that passes through a filter, e.g. the glomerular membranes

58

"Left-shift"

An increase in teh relative percentage of "less than mature" granulocytes (eg band forms)

59

-itis

Inflammation

60

Leukemoid reaction

Excessively high white cell counts (25-50,000) with "left shift" that mimics the blood picture of leukemia. This occurs in sever infection, sever toxic states, and other conditions. Usually, with infection, the increased WCC is about 15,000 (Normal 5,000-10,000)

61

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges

62

Plasma

Fluid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended

63

Pus

An exudate containing large numbers of viable and dead neutrophils

64

Pyogenic

Producing pus

65

Serositis

An inflammation of the serosa  of an organ, may have any type of exudate associated with it

66

Serous exudate

An exudate virtually devoid of inflammatory cells or fibrin; resembles the appearance of serum

67

Serum

Cellular free portion of blood from which fibrinogen has benn separated

68

Suppuration

Inflammation resulting in the formation of pus

69

Transudate

An ultrafiltrate of blood plasma that has passed from within blood vessels into tissues due to a change in hydrostatic pressure

70

Vascular permeability

Normally, only water and salt leave vessels; altered permeability, due to endothelial cell contractionor damage, causes leakage of larger compounds such as proteins and cells

71

Vasodilation

The relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle causes increased blood flow