Flashcards in Media Representations of Crime and Globalisation and Crime Deck (33):
Who found that British Newspapers devote 30% of their news space to crime?
Williams and Dickenson
............ found ...% of media reports were about violent or sexual crimes when these only make up 3% of recorded crimes?
Ditton and Duffy
Who found that violent crime was 36 times more likely to be reported in the media than property crime?
Who found that the media portrays criminals and victims as older and more middle class than those typically in statistics and what does he call this?
What do left realists and marxists point out about what the media conceals?
Disguises that most criminals and victims are working class and conceals crimes of the powerful
Cohen and Young argue about news being manufactured, explain what they think
The media has news values - criteria by which, journalists decide whether a story is newsworthy. If a crime story is dramatised and involves higher people and violence it is more likely to make it into the news.
What do Greer and Reiner believe about how the media exploits possibilities for a good story?
The media do this by exaggerating, over reporting and sensationalising crimes to generate audience interest
Who argues that people base knowledge of crime on the media, he calls this a backwards law which means? and give an example
backwards law - when the media constructs images of crime which are a backwards version of reality, for example it presents rape as most likely by a stranger at night but 90% of rape victims knew the offender and 70% occur in the homes of the victim/offender.
Who coined the term hyperreality and what does it mean?
Media doesn't reflect reality but creates it as most peoples only knowledge of crime is through media images
Who did a study measuring the effects on children watching aggression? How did she do it and what did she find?
divided children into a group who saw the aggression and a group who didn't and those who had seen it displayed more aggression themselves
What did Gerbner argue?
That heavy users of television has higher fears of crime
Who argued that tabloid readers and heavy users of television expressed greater fear of becoming a victim of crime?
Who argued that the media causes crime increasing the sense of relative deprivation by showing lifestyle images that are unattainable for working class people?
Lea and Young
Who argued that pressure to conform to the norm can cause deviance when legitimate opportunities are blocked?
Who described the 1964 minor disorder in Clacton between mods and rockers that the media turned into a moral panic by exaggerating and distorting, their symbolisation of events and predictions of more disorder produced deviance amplification what is this and explain how it happened
Deviance amplification - when the media makes the deviance they condemn worse by exaggerated, distorted reporting. The media produced stigmatisation and labeling causing more deviance by defining the groups by their subcultural styles which led to more youths adopting them.
What does Cohen believe about moral panics? When they occur and what they are results of.
Occur at times of social change when accepted values are undermined, moral panics are the result of boundary crisis - where there is uncertainty of boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. The folk devil created symbolises anxiety about social disorder.
Who argues that moral panics are now routine so have less impact since in later modernity there is little consensus about what constitutes deviance so it is harder to create moral panics
McRobbie and Thornton
How did Thomas and Loader define cyber crime?
Computer mediated activities that are illegal and conducted through global economic networks
Who argues that the internet creates opportunities to commit conventional crimes like fraud and new crimes using new tools like software piracy. Also provides police with better opportunities for surveillance through things like what?
CCTV and fingerprinting
Who gives categories for cyber crime and what are they?
Cyber deception and theft
Cyber pornography involving minors or children being able to access
Cyber violence - threatening emails or stalking
What did Swash find?
That 95% of music available online is downloaded illegally
How does Held define globalisation? And what does he notes about globalisation in relation to crime?
'the widening, deepening and speeding up of worldwide interconnectedness in all aspects of life.'
increasing interconnectedness of crime across national borders has brought about the spread of transnational crime and new opportunities and offences
Who argues there are 2 main forms of global criminal networks? Established mafias and Newer organised crime groups, define these.
established mafias - like the Italian-American mafia - adapted their activities to take advantage of new opportunities
newer organised crime groups - emerged since globalisation and connect with one another and established mafias .
Who argues that the global criminal economy is worth over £1 trillion per annum through arms trafficking, smuggling immigrants, trafficking body parts and the drugs trade
How many organs annually are thought to be smuggled from condemned/executed criminals per annum?
The World Drug Report 2007 estimated the drug trade to be worth how much?
$322 billion per year
which is higher than the GDP in 88% of countries
Who is drug cultivating an attractive option for and why?
Large populations of peasants in countries like Peru and Columbia, it is attractive because it requires little investment and less technology than traditional crops
How much of the population is Columbia depend on cocaine production?
What do Lash and Urry say globalisation is accompanied by?
Disorganised capitalism which is less regulation and fewer state controls over business
Who argues that giving rein to market forces created gender equality and rising crime. Corporations are now manufacturing in low wage countries producing job insecurity and unemployment. Marketisation has encouraged people to see themselves as individual consumers, undermining social cohesion and as left realists note, materialistic culture promoted by a global media portrays success in terms of a lifestyle of consumption encourages crime and lack of job opportunities destroys self-respect and drives people to look for illegitimate opportunities, give an example.
in Los Angeles, de-industrialisation led to the growth of drugs and gangs numbering 10,000 members
Who shows how globalisation and de-industrialisation have created new opporunities for bouncers in Sunderland?
Who argues that crime is now glocal? Which means?
Hobbs and Dunningham
glocal means that crime is now locally based but with global connections