Medical HX & Systemic Diseases Flashcards Preview

Patient Care 1 Exam 2 > Medical HX & Systemic Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical HX & Systemic Diseases Deck (50)
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1

Dx

diagnosis

2

Hx

History

3

N/A

next appt or not applicable

4

FM

Full mouth

5

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

6

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

7

Prn

as needed

8

BID

twice a day

9

TID

three times a day

10

did

four times a day

11

Pt

Patient

12

Rx

prescription

13

TMJ

Temporomandible joint

14

TB

tuberculosis

15

Medical history

all pts get a medical history even if you appear apparently healthy. pts often dont realize or recall the significance of this. look for the most common diseases first. pt sometimes forget or "fudge" - oral hygiene, alcohol or drugs. make sure pt can understand ur questions - speak at the patients level of understanding - language barriers

16

Asthma

A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by reversible episodes of increased airway hyper responsiveness resulting in recurrent episodes of hyspnea, coughing and wheezing.
Usually sudden onset with peak symptoms with 10-15 mins.
Inadequate treatment results in ER visits for about 25% of patients

17

Asthma - causes/triggers

emotional or physical stress
Allergy to foods or drugs-ingestion of nuts, shellfish, aspirin, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's)
Air pollution or irritating vapors
upper respiratory infections
exercise induced

18

Asthma - dental considerations

avoid aspirin and NSAIDs-asiprin causes bronchoconstriction and sensitivity is common
Triad asthmatics - if patients have this they may have a very sudden and very severe asthma attack
No contraindication to N2O
No contraindication of valium

19

Asthma - symptoms

chest congestion
wheezing and cough
dyspnea and tachypnea
increase BP
anxiety and agitation
cyanosis

20

Asthma - prevention

Prevent an acute attack
Through a good medical history - should be able to determine severity and stability of the disease
Frequency & severity of attacks, time of day
any current or past problems with attacks
how are attacks usually managed
has the pt ever received emergency care for an acute attack

21

Asthma - management

terminate procedure
postion patient - upright
calm pt
administer bronchodilator - Ventolin
administer O2
summon medical assistance
administer epinephrine-bronchodilator and antispasmodic

22

Asthma - prevention again

get vaccinated for influenza and pneumonia
know your asthma triggers - smoke, exercise, animals
take medication as prescribed
risk assessment - through a good medical history
may want pt to take a puff from their inhaler prior to starting treatmetn

23

Diabetes mellitus

chronic systemic disease characterized by a disorder in metabolism of fats, protein, and the structure and function of blood vessels.
- disorder of glucose metabolism

24

Type 1 diabetes

IDDM
More common in adolescents, may develop in adults, circulating insulin absent, beta cells fail to respond to stimuli, requires exogenous insulin

25

Type II Diabetes

NIDDM
Milder form of diabetes
usually seen in adults
usually obese
ketoacidosis uncommon
clinical onset slow
blood sugar levels much more stable

26

Diabetes - gestational

any degree of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy
obesity during pregnancy is a know risk factor
After childbirth the mother's glycemic control usually returns to normal, but these women have an increased risk of developing diabetes within 5-10 years

27

Persistent elevated blood glucose levels put a person at risk of

diabetes

28

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Body produces high levels of blood acid called ketones
Develops when your body can't produce enough insulin
Kussmauls respirations-deep and labored breathing pattern
can be triggered by infection or other illness
rare in ppl with type 2

29

Hyperglycemia

polyuria
polydipsia
polyphagia
dry, warm skin
kussmauls respirations
fruity breath odor
rapid, weak pulse
altered level of consciousness

30

Hypoglycemia

pale, moist skin
weakness, dizziness
shallow respirations
headache
altered level of consciousness
onset very sudden
blood glucose values , 50 mg/100ml