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Flashcards in Vital Signs Deck (39)
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1

The best way to prevent a medical emergency

A good medical history - Baseline knowledge of Pt

2

Vital signs are

temperature, pulse, respirations, and BP

3

The benefits of vital sign measurements are

Baseline normal values ensures a standard comparison in the event of a medical emergency.
Used as a screening tool for abnormalities, either diagnosed or undiagnosed

4

Classical signs of infection

calor (heat), dolor (pain), rubor (redness), tumor (swelling)

5

Viral Infection

parasitic and require a host cell. Ex: influenza, HSV, HIV, HPV

6

Bacterial infection

singled-cell microorganism. Ex: strep throat, E. coli, cellulitis, MRSA, and tuberculosis

7

Fungal infection

yeast and mold. Ex: ringworm, thrush, and histoplasmosis

8

Parasitic infection

Live on or in a host. Ex: malaria, lice, and tapeworm

9

Dry socket/alveolar osteitis

delayed healing, not associated with infection

10

Temperature

we do take this, orally 98.6 = average.
lowest in 6AM
highest from 4-6pm
Normal for us = 97-99
Axillary = oral - 1
Rectal = oral + 1

11

Orally taken temp is

under the tongue, as far back as possible, > 20 minutes since they had anything to eat or drink, wait for beep

12

Digital thermometers

when used correctly they are accurate enough to meet daily needs and safer than the mercury thermometers

13

Different methods of taking temperatures can produce

different average readings. Important to take temp with whatever method u choose and if its inaccurate it is generally read lower than the true temperature.

14

Fever

Considered to be a temperature of 100.4F/38C degrees or higher. Skin may appear redder than usual. Cheeks become flushed

15

Low grade fever

Considered to be a temperature of 99.6F-100.3 F

16

Pulse

Radial, Brachial, Carotid. Normal is 60-100 beats per min (children higher and athletes lower)

17

Radial Artery

Thumb side of the wrist, tips of index and middle fingers, take for 30secsX2.

18

Carotid artery

Has some advantages - most ppl know where it is, and how to find it because of CPR training, it is reliable because it is large, central artery

19

Pulse rate greater than 100bpm

Tachycardia

20

Pulse rate less than 60 bpm

Bradycardia

21

An abnormal pulse rate may be a sign

of a cardiovascular disorder, but also could be influenced by anemia, exercise, anxiety, drugs, or fever.
Can be misreading and anxiety - most common in the clinic

22

Respirations

Count breaths
30 secX2
Normal = 12-14 per min. - children higher and athletes lower.

23

Bradypnea=
Tachypnea =

Slow
Rapid breathing

24

Hypertension

Increase is attributed to aging population.
Increase in obesity

25

Systolic

Max pressure your heart exerts while beating.
Phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries.
How much blood pressure is pushing on your blood vessel walls.
Upper number

26

Diastolic

Lower number.
The phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood.
Pressure in your arteries between beats

27

Systolic hypertension

Blood pressure is higher than 130 but your diastolic blood pressure is under 80.
Most common kind of high blood pressure in older people

28

Pulse pressure

the difference btw the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The force that the heart generates each time it contracts. Considered a risk factor when it is greater than 60 mmHg. Mortality predictor esp with hemodialysis patients

29

Antecubital Fossa

Middle of the arm

30

Automated BP cuffs

Arm and wrist (not as accurate)