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Flashcards in Medical Science Deck (107)
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1

What are cells?

Building blocks of living things

2

What three parts do an animal cell contain?

  1. Nucleus,
  2. Cell Membrane,
  3. Cytoplasm

3

What is the job of the nucleus?

Controls the cells activities and contains DNA

4

What is the job of the cytoplasm?

Site of chemical reactions.

5

What is the job of the cell membrane?

Controls what enters and leaves the cell.

6

Identify the parts of an animal cell that are shown.

See diagram below.

7

What are the three main parts of blood?

  1. Red Blood Cells,
  2. White Blood Cells,
  3. Plasma

8

What is the function of red blood cells?

Carry oxygen round the body

9

What is the function of white blood cells?

White blood cells fight disease.

10

What two ways can white blood cells fight disease?

  • Produce antibodies to kill microorganisms
  • Engulf and consume the microorganism

11

What is the function of plasma?

It is the liquid part of blood

12

What is the job of the heart?

Pumps blood around the body

13

How many chambers does the heart have?

4

14

What are the names of the four chambers in the heart?

  1. Right Atrium
  2. Left Atrium
  3. Right Ventricle
  4. Left Ventricle

15

Which side of the body pumps blood to the lungs?

Right

16

Which side of the body pumps blood to the body?

Left

17

Why is blood pumped to the lungs?

To pick up oxygen

18

What is the purpose of valves in the heart?

To keep blood flowing in one direction

19

Identify the 4 chambers in the heart from the diagram.

See diagram below.

20

What is fertilisation?

The joining together of a sperm and an ova

21

What is the male sex cell called?

Sperm

22

What is the female sex cell called?

Ova (plural) or Ovum (singular)

23

Where does fertilisation occur?

In the oviduct

24

Where does the fertilised ovum implant itself?

In the uterus

25

Where does the embryo grow?

In the uterus

26

How does the embryo receive food and oxygen?

Through the blood in the umbilical cord

27

Where is the food and oxygen from the mother's blood passed into the embryo's blood?

Placenta

28

What harmful substances can be passed to the embryo?

  • alcohol
  • nicotine
  • illegal drugs

29

What does the amniotic fluid do?

Protects the embryo in the uterus

30

Can we hear ultrasound?

No

31

What is meant by ultrasound?

Frequencies above 20,000Hz

32

What can ultrasound be used for?

To create an image of an unborn baby

33

Why are ultrasound scans carried out on unborn babies?

To check if the embryo is developing properly

34

What can ultrasound be used for, other than ultrasound scans on unborn babies?

  • Treating Kidney Stones
  • Imaging organs
  • treating joint pain

35

How is an ultrasound image produced?

Transducer transmits and receives ultrasound. Ultrasound transmitted into mothers body Ultrasound reflects from baby Reflection data fed into a computer that builds up the image

36

Where is the skull?

The bone in your head

37

Where is the clavicle?

The collar bone

38

Where is the humerus?

Large bone in upper arm

39

Where is the radius?

Turn hand so that thumb is furthest away from body. Radius is the outermost bone of the lower arm.

40

Where is the ulna?

Turn hand so that thumb is furthest away from body. Ulna is the innermost bone of the lower arm.

41

Where are the ribs?

Trunk of body

42

Where is the femur?

Thigh Bone

43

Where is the patella?

It is the kneecap

44

Where is the tibia?

Thick bone in lower part of leg.

45

Where is the fibula?

Thin bone in lower part of leg

46

Can you see an X-ray?

No

47

What can be used to detect X-rays?

Photographic film

48

What can X-rays make images of?

  • Bones,
  • organs,
  • tumours

49

Why do bones appear white on an X-ray?

The bone absorbs the X-ray so the photographic film is not exposed. The rest of the film fogs.

50

Why do we not use X-rays to make images of unborn babies?

X-rays can damage the developing embryo

51

How can we detect a broken bone on an X-ray?

X-rays can pass through the gaps in the broken bones, so they show up as a dark line on the white unexposed area of the bone.

52

Give an advantage of using X-rays for diagnosis?

No need to cut the person open to see what is happening.

53

Can you see infrared radiation?

No

54

What can you use to detect infrared?

  • Special film,
  • infrared thermometers,
  • special cameras

55

What other word can be used for infrared?

heat

56

What is a thermogram?

An image made using the heat given off by a body.

57

Suggest two conditions where heat or a thermogram can be useful.

Thermograms can be used to:

  • Identify circulation problems,
  • Identify whiplash,
  • Identify arthritis,
  • Identify skin cancer
  • Infrared can be used to treat muscle strain.

58

State one advantage of using infrared radiation in medicine.

Do not need to cut the person open to make a diagnosis.

59

Can we see UV light?

No

60

What effect can UV have on certain chemicals?

It can make them glow or fluoresce

61

Where can UV light making things fluoresce be used?

Security markings on driving licenses or bank cards Security ink to write on belongings Washing powders Security markings on bank notes

62

What can over exposure to UV cause?

  • Sunburn
  • Skin cancer
  • Damage to eyes
  • Skin aging

63

Why will skiing or beach holidays increase your UV exposure?

Snow and water reflect UV light increasing your exposure

64

Name two conditions that can be improved by exposure to UV light?

  • Psoriasis
  • Vitiligo
  • Eczema
  • Acne

65

How can you reduce your exposure to UV light?

  • Wear sun cream
  • Wear a hat
  • Cover up
  • Avoid the midday sun

66

Why is UV light essential to the body?

Helps in production of vitamin D

67

State one problem associated with Vitamin D deficiency

Rickets

68

In digestion what do enzymes do?

Break down food chemically

69

What is meant by digestion?

It is the breaking down of large insoluble molecules into small soluble molecules.

70

What are the parts of the digestive system in order?

  1. Mouth,
  2. Gullet,
  3. Stomach,
  4. Small intestine,
  5. Large intestine,
  6. Rectum,
  7. Anus

71

What does the stomach contain?

Acid

72

What happens in the small intestine?

Food is completely broken down and passes into the bloodstream

73

What happens in the large intestine?

Excess water is absorbed

74

What happens in the rectum?

Waste is stored here until it is ready to pass out of the body.

75

On the diagram where is the gullet?

Shown on diagram

76

On the diagram where is the stomach?

Shown on diagram

77

On the diagram where is the large intestine?

Shown on diagram

78

On the diagram where is the small intestine?

Shown on diagram

79

On the diagram where is the rectum?

Shown on diagram

80

What are the four types of teeth?

  1. Incisors
  2. Canines
  3. Premolars
  4. Molars

81

What are incisors for?

Biting

82

What are canines for?

Tearing

83

What are premolars for?

Grinding and chewing

84

What are molars for?

Grinding and chewing

85

What are the two parts of the tooth?

  1. Crown
  2. Root

86

What is the hard substance that covers a tooth called?

Enamel

87

What is the soft substance under the enamel in a tooth called?

Dentine

88

What is the purpose of teeth?

To break down food mechanically

89

How can plaque damage teeth?

It contains bacteria that produces acid that can lead to tooth decay.

90

What is neutralisation?

It when an acid or alkali is added to a substance to bring it to pH 7

91

What pH are acids?

pH 1-6

92

What pH are alkalis?

pH 8-14

93

What pH is neutral?

pH 7

94

What colour does universal indicator go in an acid?

Red

95

What colour does universal indicator go in an alkali?

Blue/Purple

96

What colour does universal indicator go in a neutral substance?

Green

97

What is the pH of the strongest acid?

pH 1

98

What is the pH of the weakest acid?

pH 6

99

What is the pH of the strongest alkali?

pH 14

100

What is the pH of the weakest alkali?

pH 8

101

What causes heartburn and indigestion?

Excess stomach acid

102

What can cure indigestion and heartburn?

  • Indigestion tablets 
  • Rennies

103

What can excess stomach acid cause?

  • Heartburn
  • Indigestion

104

How do indigestion tablets work?

They neutralise excess acid in the stomach

105

Why do we use toothpaste?

It is an alkali to neutralise plaque acid

106

What do toothpastes contain to neutralise acid?

sodium carbonate

107

What is the function of the skeleton?

  • Protects vital organs
  • Supports the body