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Baldragon Academy Science Junior Phase > Sports Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sports Science Deck (131)
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1

State the formula used to calculate speed, distance or time.

d=vt

2

What unit is speed measured in?

metres per second, m/s

3

What unit is time measured in?

seconds, s

4

What unit is distance measured in?

metres, m

5

Explain how you could measure speed.

  • Mark a start line and a finish line.
  • Measure the distance between them with a metre stick.
  • Start a stop watch when the object crosses the start line.
  • Stop the stop watch when the object crosses the finish line.
  • Then use d=vt

6

What is a reaction time?

The time between a stimulus and a muscular response to it.

7

What happens in the body during a reaction time?

  • The eye sees something.
  • It sends a signal to the visual cortex in the brain.
  • The visual cortex sends a message to the motor cortex in the brain.
  • The motor cortex sends a signal through the spinal cord to the muscles telling them to contract.

8

Which race would reaction time have a greater impact on? Give a reason for your answer.

a) 100m sprint

b) 10,000m race.

The 100m sprint as the reaction time is a bigger proportion of the time for the whole race. (In a 10 000m race the reaction time is a tiny proprtion of the time for the whole race)

9

Suggest two places in sport where reaction time is important.

Goal keeper in football

Tennis player to reach ball

Table tennis to react to shots

To start any sprint race

Swimming race when you dive in

10

What unit are forces measured in?

Newtons

11

What device measures forces?

Newton Balance

12

What is a balanced force?

Equal forces acting in opposite directions

13

What are the two effects of a balanced force?

Object will remain stationary.

Object will continue to travel at a constant speed in a stright line.

14

If two forces act in the same direction how do you work out the resultant force?

Add them together to get the size of the force, then state the direction the force acts in.

15

What does an unbalanced force cause?

An acceleration in the direction of the unbalanced force.

16

If two forces act in the opposite direction how do you work out the resultant force?

Subtract them to get the size of the force, then state the direction the force acts in.

17

What is friction?

A force caused by two surfaces rubbing together.

18

What is air resistance?

This is caused by air rubbing on a surface.

19

What is water resistance?

This is caused by water rubbing on a surface.

20

What direction does friction act in?

Opposite to the direction of motion.

21

How can friction be increased?

Make the rubbing surfaces larger. Make the rubbing surfaces rougher. Push the rubbing surfaces harder together.

22

How can friction be decreased?

Make the rubbing surfaces smaller. Make the rubbing surfaces smoother. Push the rubbing surfaces together less. Lubrication/oiling Streamlining

23

What is meant by streamlining?

Changing the shape of an object to reduce air/water resistance/friction.

24

What would a streamlined object look like?

Smooth, low to the ground, have curves

25

Why are parachutes used in resistance training?

The parachute will increase air resistance, it makes you work harder and increase your stride.

26

State two place in sport that friction is deliberately increased.

Anywhere 'grip' is needed. - Surface is made rough to increase friction to maintain grip. (Golf club grips, goalkeeper gloves, basketball surface etc) - In braking to slow you down (bicycle brakes, parachute used in drag racing to slow you down etc)

27

State Newton's 3rd law of motion.

For every action force there is an equal but opposite reaction force.

28

Explain how you swim using Newtons 3rd law.

Your body pushes the water backwards, the water pushes your body forwards.

29

What are the 4 swimming strokes?

  • Breast,
  • freestyle,
  • butterfly,
  • backstroke.

30

How can a swimmer reduce water resistance?

Wear a cap, shaving, tight fitting costumes.

31

Which would hit the ground first a ping pong ball or a golf ball?

Both hit the ground at the same time.

32

What causes all objects to accelerate towards the Earth?

Gravity

33

How can you effect the falling rate of an object?

Change the air resistance that acts on it.

34

What is a trajectory?

The curved path a thrown or kicked object takes.

35

What is a projectile?

Any object that is thrown or kicked.

36

What is the range of a projectile?

The horizontal distance travelled by a projectile.

37

What can effect the range of a projectile?

  • The force the object is fired at.
  • The angle the object is fired at.

38

What parts of the body does oxygen travel through to get into the body?

Nose/Mouth - trachea - bronchus - bronchioles - alveoli-bloodstream

39

Why are there rings of cartilage in the windpipe?

To hold the windpipe open.

40

What happens to the diaphragm when you breathe in?

It contracts and moves down

41

What happens to the diaphragm when you breathe out?

It relaxes and moves up

42

What is meant by breathing rate?

The number of breaths taken per minute.

43

What happens to your breathing rate as you exercise?

It increases.

44

After exercise your breathing rate will return to normal. If your breathing rate returns to normal quickly what does this mean?

The faster breathing rates return to normal the fitter the person.

45

What does a peak flow meter measure?

The maximum speed of air during an exhalation

46

What can a lung volume bag measure?

  • vital capacity
  • Tidal volume

47

What happens to blood pressure with exercise?

It increases

48

What is a joint?

Where two or more bones meet

49

State two place to find a hinge joint.

Knee and elbow

50

State two places you find ball and socket joints.

Hip and shoulder.

51

What are ligaments?

Tough bundles of fibre that hold boes togther.

52

What does the synovial membrane do?

It makes synovial fluid.

53

What does synovial fluid do?

It is oily and acts as a lubricant to reduce friction.

54

What is the capsule?

Surrounds the joint and keeps the synovial fluid in.

55

What is cartilage?

Soft smooth substance which acts as a shock absorber.

56

What do tendons do?

They attach muscles to bones.

57

How do muscles move bones?

They contract.

58

What are the names of the pair of muscles in the arm?

Biceps and triceps

59

What are the names of the muscles in the leg?

Hamstring and quadriceps

60

What causes muscle fatigue?

Repeated contraction of muscles.

61

When does muscle fatigue occur?

Repeated exercises that require repeated contraction of teh same muscle.

62

What are the groups that food exists in?

  • Carbohydrate
  • Protein
  • Fat

63

Carbohydrates can be split into two groups. What are they?

  • Sugar
  • Starch

64

Which foods release energy most quickly?

Sugars

65

Which foods release energy most slowly?

Fats

66

What does the body use protein for?

Growth and repair

67

Which chemical can test for sugar?

Benedicts Solution

68

What is the colour change in Benedicts Solution if sugar is present?

Blue to orange

69

Which chemical can be used to test for starch?

Iodine

70

What is the colour change in Iodine if starch is prwsent?

Brown to blue/black

71

Which chemical can be used to test for protein?

Biuret's Solution

72

What is the colour change in Biurets Solution if protein is present?

Blue to lilac/purple

73

What is meant by diffusion?

The movement of molecules/particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until evenly ditributed throughout.

74

What is meant by osmosis?

Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration of water molecules to a low concentration of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane

75

What are the gases in the air?

Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, others

76

What is the percentage of nitrogen in the air?

78%

77

What is the percentage of oxygen in the air?

21%

78

What is the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air?

0.03%

79

Name the parts of the body involved in the reaction time.

  • eye
  • visual cortex
  • motor cortex
  • spinal cord
  • muscles

80

An object is travelling at a constant speed. Describe the forces acting on the object.

Balanced Forces

81

What is the unit for gravitational pull?

Newtons per kilogram

82

What is the force caused by the gravitational pull acting on an object?

Weight

83

What unit is weight measured in?

Newtons

84

What unit is mass measured in?

kilograms, kg

85

What do objects accelerate towards the ground?

They accelerate because of the gravitational pull acting on them

86

What formula links weight, mass and gravitational pull?

W=mg

Weight = mass x gravitational pull

87

Two objects of different masses but the same size are dropped from the same height. Which one will hit the ground first?

They both hit the ground at the same time.

88

What factor can effect the falling rate of an object?

Air resistance

89

Suggest two places that lubrication would be useful in sport.

  • Oiling a bicycle chain
  • Waxing skis

90

Explain how lubrication reduces friction.

It makes the rubbing surfaces smoother.

91

Name a sport where streamlining is used.

  • Swimming
  • Cycling
  • Speed skating
  • Skiing
  • Formula 1

92

State two ways you can change the distance travelled by a projectile.

  • angle of launch
  • force / speed of launch

93

Suggest a reason that a projectile may not travel as far as it could.

  • air resistance
  • crosswinds
  • wind direction

94

Name a projectile in sport

  • Golf ball after it has been hit
  • A javelin being thrown
  • Rugby ball being kicked
  • Football being kicked
  • Arrow being fired from a bow
  • Shot putt being thrown
  • Discus being thrown
  • Volleyball being played

95

Describe the mechanism for breathing in.

The rib cage moves up and out, the diaphragm contracts and moves down increasing the volume in the rib cage and air rushes in.

96

Describe the mechanism for breathing out.

Ribcage moves down and in, diaphragm relaxes and moves up decreasing the volume in the ribcage and air is forced out.

97

What is a fibrous joint?

An immovable joint

98

State one place in the body that you would find a fibrous joint.

Skull

99

What is a cartilaginous joint?

Slightly moveable joints with pieces of cartilage between bones holding them together

100

State one place in the body you could find a cartilaginous joint

Spine

101

What is a synovial joint?

Synovial joints are freely moveable joints

102

State one place in the body that you could find a synovial joint.

  • Shoulder
  • Hip
  • Knee
  • Elbow

103

What is the test for oxygen?

Relights a glowing splint

104

What is the test for hydrogen?

Burns with a squeaky pop

105

What is the test for Carbon dioxide?

Turns lime water cloudy

106

Which gas will relight a glowing splint?

Oxygen

107

Which gas burns with a squeaky pop?

Hydrogen

108

Which gas is tested for using lime water?

Carbon dioxide

109

What specific molecule is involved in osmosis?

Water

110

Why does diffusion occur in cells?

To allow substances to move through the cytoplasm to reach the area where they will be used in a biological process

111

List the three states of matter in order of the fastest for diffusion to the slowest for diffusion.

  1. Gas
  2. Liquid
  3. Solid

112

Name drugs used in doping in sport

  • EPO
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Beta-blockers

113

Why do sports people dope with anabolic steroids?

  • they induce rapid muscle growth in a short time
  • Allow athletes to recover from high intensity training/events

114

Why might a sports person dope with beta-blockers?

  • Calm the athlete down

115

Why might a sports person dope with EPO?

  • Causes body to make more red blood cells

116

Which sports suffer from EPO drug doping?

Endurance sports

117

Which sports suffer from anabolic steroid doping?

  • Weighlifting
  • Sprinters

Cyclists

118

Which sports might suffer from EPO doping?

  • Long distance runners
  • Long cycling races
  • Triathlons

119

Name two body fluids that can be tested for drug doping.

  • Urine
  • Blood

120

Why is EPO difficult to detect?

It is a naturally occuring compound in the blood.

121

What are the two main forces on a formula 1 car?

Forward thrust from engines, backwards force caused by friction / air resistance.

122

What are the two main forces on a sprinter?

Forward thrust from body, backwards force caused by friction / air resistance.

123

What are the four forces acting on a swimmer?

  • Forward thrust from body
  • Backwards force caused by water resistance
  • Downwards force caused by weight
  • Upwards force called upthrust caused by water

124

What are the two main forces acting on a skydiver / parachutist?

  • Downwards force caused by weight
  • Upwards force caused by air resistance

125

What are the two main forces acting on a falling object?

  • Weight acting downwards
  • Air resistance acting upwards

126

Explain how a Newton balance works.

  • There is a spring inside
  • Spring stretches a different amount depending on the force applied
  • There is a scale to read the value from.

127

What is the percentage of Nitrogen in the air?

78%

128

What is the percentage of oxygen in the air?

21%

129

What is the percentage of Carbon dioxide in the air?

0.03%

130

What is the percentage of other gases in the air?

0.97%

131

Name the gases in the air.

  • Nitrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Others (Argon, hydrogen etc)