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Flashcards in Medications Deck (15)
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1

What do you use anti-platelets for and an example

reduce chance of stroke and heart attack
STEMI & NSTEMI
Coronary stents (do not stop anti-platelets for dental procedures with these)
Stable angina
High risk GI bleeding (combined with a proton pump inhibitor in this case)

Aspirin, clopidogrel, dipyridamole

2

What do you use statins for and example and side effect

Lipid lowering drugs - reduce cholesterol synthesis in liver.
For hypercholesterolaemia, prevention of atherosclerotic CV disease
Simvastatin

Side effect - dizziness, headaches.

3

Beta blockers use, example and side-effect

Treat HIGH BP - they Lower BP
They reduce heart muscle excitability and reduce airway size.
STOP ARRHYTHMAIS
Propanolol
Can cause postural hypotension and COPD & asthma contraindicator

4

Diuretics use, example and side-effect

Treat HIGH BP.
Used for heart failure - they cause excess urination and dehydration (offload salt and water)
Thiazide - bendroflumethiazide
Side-effect - dry mouth in elderly if excess fluid loss, gout and dehyfration

5

Nitrates what they do exmaples and side effect

Angina relief - vasodilator
They reduce venous filling pressure.

GTN spray (short-acting)
Isosorbide mononitrate (long-acting) - prevention of angina pectoris long-term

Side-effect - headache, hypotension, arrythmias

6

Calcium channel blockers

Hypertension treatment - Block Ca channels in smooth muscle in blood vessel walls – relaxation and vasodilation.
Nifidipine
Side-effect - gingival hyperplasia and postural hypotension.

7

ACE inhibitors

Treat hypertension. Reduce BP - vasodilators
Enalapril
Side-effect - cough, potential hypotension & peripheral vascular disease

8

Beta-2 agonists

BRONCHODILATORS - Relieve bronchoconstriction - asthma.
Short-acting = blue, salbutamol
Long-acting = green, preventative

9

Corticosteroids action, example and side effect

reduces inflammation of bronchial walls.
Beclomethasone - brown inhaler.
Increased oral candidiasis risk

10

How does warfarin work?

Inhibits the synthesis of Vitamin K dependant clotting factors through inhibition of vitamin K

11

What CV problems should you treat warfarin with and some side-effects of it?

Atrial fibrillation
Heart valve disease
Heart valve replacements
Thrombophilia
DVT

Side effects - Haemorrhage

12

NOAC how they work and example

They act as factor X inhibitors

Apixaban (twice daily), rivaroxiban (once daily)

13

Benefits of NOAC's for Dentistry

Predictable bioavailability
No significant dentistry drug interactions
Short duration of action (effect lost within a day - means you can carry out procedures without stopping the medication)
May only be a short course (particularly for DVT) so can just prolong extractions

14

What does tranexemic acid do and what does it treat?

Fibrinolysis inhibitor - keeps any clot that is formed. Used to treat mild haemophilia A (factor 8 deficiency)

15

What does DDAVP do and what does it treat?

DDAVP displaces factor 8 that is bound to the vascular wall into circulation.

Used to treat mild haemophilia A and Von Willebrand's disease.