Flashcards in Medications Deck (15)
What do you use anti-platelets for and an example
reduce chance of stroke and heart attack
STEMI & NSTEMI
Coronary stents (do not stop anti-platelets for dental procedures with these)
High risk GI bleeding (combined with a proton pump inhibitor in this case)
Aspirin, clopidogrel, dipyridamole
What do you use statins for and example and side effect
Lipid lowering drugs - reduce cholesterol synthesis in liver.
For hypercholesterolaemia, prevention of atherosclerotic CV disease
Side effect - dizziness, headaches.
Beta blockers use, example and side-effect
Treat HIGH BP - they Lower BP
They reduce heart muscle excitability and reduce airway size.
Can cause postural hypotension and COPD & asthma contraindicator
Diuretics use, example and side-effect
Treat HIGH BP.
Used for heart failure - they cause excess urination and dehydration (offload salt and water)
Thiazide - bendroflumethiazide
Side-effect - dry mouth in elderly if excess fluid loss, gout and dehyfration
Nitrates what they do exmaples and side effect
Angina relief - vasodilator
They reduce venous filling pressure.
GTN spray (short-acting)
Isosorbide mononitrate (long-acting) - prevention of angina pectoris long-term
Side-effect - headache, hypotension, arrythmias
Calcium channel blockers
Hypertension treatment - Block Ca channels in smooth muscle in blood vessel walls – relaxation and vasodilation.
Side-effect - gingival hyperplasia and postural hypotension.
Treat hypertension. Reduce BP - vasodilators
Side-effect - cough, potential hypotension & peripheral vascular disease
BRONCHODILATORS - Relieve bronchoconstriction - asthma.
Short-acting = blue, salbutamol
Long-acting = green, preventative
Corticosteroids action, example and side effect
reduces inflammation of bronchial walls.
Beclomethasone - brown inhaler.
Increased oral candidiasis risk
How does warfarin work?
Inhibits the synthesis of Vitamin K dependant clotting factors through inhibition of vitamin K
What CV problems should you treat warfarin with and some side-effects of it?
Heart valve disease
Heart valve replacements
Side effects - Haemorrhage
NOAC how they work and example
They act as factor X inhibitors
Apixaban (twice daily), rivaroxiban (once daily)
Benefits of NOAC's for Dentistry
No significant dentistry drug interactions
Short duration of action (effect lost within a day - means you can carry out procedures without stopping the medication)
May only be a short course (particularly for DVT) so can just prolong extractions
What does tranexemic acid do and what does it treat?
Fibrinolysis inhibitor - keeps any clot that is formed. Used to treat mild haemophilia A (factor 8 deficiency)