Flashcards in Medications from all Chps Deck (45):
What are Anti-Anxiety (anxiolytics) drugs?
-combat anxiety and reduce states of muscle tension
-include mild tranquilizers such as diazepam (Valium), and barbiturates, sedative-hypnotics such as triazolam and flurazepam
-These drugs depress the level of activity in certain parts of the CNS
-CNS decreases the level of the sympathetic nervous system activity, reducing heart rate and anxiety/tension.
What is one of the most commonly prescribed minor tranquilizers?
Valium- minor tranquilizers often lead to physiological dependence
-Should not mix them with alcohol
Regular usage of benzodiazepines can lead to ______ and _________
Tolerance and Rebound anxiety
What are antipsychotics? (neuroleptics)
used to treat more flagrant features of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions and states of confusion
What class do many antipsychotics fall into?
Phenothiazine class- they control psychotic features by blocking the action of dopamine at receptor sites in the brain
What are examples of antipsychotics?
Chlorpromazine, Risperidone, Seroquel,
What is a different type of antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia?
Clozapine- use this to treat people whose symptoms were unresponsive to other types of neuroleptics
What are some potential side effects of neuroleptics?
muscular rigidity and tremors --> long term use can also produce tardive dyskinesia
What are three classes of antidepressants?
2) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO)
What do tricyclics and MAO's do?
They increase the availability of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain
What are some common tricyclics
Tofranil and Elavil
Are Tricyclics favoured over MAO's?
Yes, because MAO's have potentially serious side effects
What are some common MAO's
Nardil and Parnate
What do SSRI's do?
Increase the availability of serotonin in the brain by interfering with its reuptake by the transmitting neuron
-WIDEST USED ANTIDEPRESSANTS
What are some common SSRI's
Some non-pure SSRI's: Effexor, Cymbalta which are SNRI's
More than half of the people who are treated for depression using antidepressants of the tricyclic class will respond _______
Which is the most effective antidepressant?
None are better than the other
What can Lithium be used for?
Effective in stabilizing the dramatic mood swings associated with bipolar disorder
-blood levels have to be closely monitored
Which neurotransmitter is implicated in Anxiety disorders?
-it is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps tone down excess activity in the nervous system
-Benzodiazepines regulate GABA receptors, thus enhancing GABA's calming (inhibiting) effects
Dysfunctions involving which neurotransmitters have also been implicated in anxiety disorders
Serotonin and norepinephrine
-So antidepressant drugs can also have beneficial effects in treating some anxiety disorders
Which drug is most often used to treat Anxiety?
Benzodiazepines (ex. Clonazepam and Xanax)
-but problem is they can lead to physiological dependence/addiction
Which other drug can be used to treat anxiety?
-helpful in treating panic, PTSD, social phobia and OCD
-they help counter anxiety by normalizing the activity of neurotransmitters in the brain
Newer drugs called SNRI
serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
-used for panic disorder
-main drug is Effexor
Which drug does OCD respond best to
-therefore, OCD may be linked to problem with serotonin in the brain
What happens in the brain in people with mood disorders?
May involve either an overabundance or an oversensitivity of receptor sites on receiving neurons where neurotransmitters dock
-norepinephrine and serotonin may be involved
Which drugs are used to treat mood disorders?
-Tricyclic, MAO and SSRI
-all of these increase the levels and actions of neurotransmitters in the brain
How long do antidepressants take to work?
They have a delayed effect. Take several weeks to kick in
Increase levels in the brain of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by interfering with the re-uptake of these chemical messengers
Ex. Prozac and Zoloft
-less toxic or dangerous
-have fewer common side effects
increase availability of both serotonin and norepinephrine
-in high doses, more effective than SSRI's
Is there a high rate of relapse when people with mood disorders stop taking medication?
Yes, relapse rates of 25-75% when people discontinue antidepressants
Drugs used for bipolar
Which drugs can be used to treat Somatoform disorders?
Antidepressants, especially SSRI's
Which drugs can be used to treat Personality disorder?
Drugs do not directly treat personality disorders
-may be used to treat emotional distress that they encounter
-Prozac can reduce aggressive behaviour and irritability
What neurotransmitter is involved in eating disorders
Serotonin is involved in regulating mood and appetite
-decreased serotonin may be involved in prompting binge eating in bulimic individuals
-Antidepressants such as Prozac that increase serotonin activity, can decrease binges
How is dopamine related to eating disorders?
Dopamine helps regulate learning and motivation
-weakened responses in reward centres in brain were related to the frequency of binges/purges
Which drugs can be used to treat sleep disorders?
Anxiolytics (anti-anxiety) drugs
-benzodiazepines used to treat insomnia
-good for short term treatment
Which drugs can be used to treat Paraphilias?
SSRI in treating voyeurism and fetishism
-these medications can be used for OCD, and these disorders are similar
Drugs used for Male Sexual dysfunction
Hormonal treatments, muscle relaxants
Viagra- drug expands blood vessels in the penis
SSRI may help delay ejaculation in men with premature ejaculation problems
Which neurotransmitter is linked to schizophrenia
-schizophrenia involves an overactivity to dopamine receptors in the brain
-do not produce more dopamine, they just use more of it (have a greater number of receptors)
Which drugs manage schizophrenia?
Antipsychotics called major tranquilizers or neuroleptics
-phenothiazines (ex. Largactil and Mellaril)
-Block dopamine receptors
Actions of amphetamines in Schizophrenia
Amphetamines = stimulant drugs
-increase concentration of dopamine
-when given large doses, these can mimic schizophrenic behaviours
What may be associated with some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Decreased rather than increased dopamine in the brain
What was the first antispychotic to be introduced?