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Flashcards in Personality Disorders Deck (66):

What are the 3 different categorizations of Personality Disorders?

1) Personality Disorders Characterized by Odd or Eccentric Behaviour
2) Personality Disorders Characterized by Dramatic, Emotional or Erratic Behaviour
3) Personality Disorders Characterized by Anxious or Fearful behaviours


Do people with personality disorders tend to seek help on their own?

No, because they don't believe they are the ones that have a problem, they think that is a normal part of them


When does something become a personality disorder?

When the behaviour pattern becomes so inflexible and maladaptive that they cause significant personal distress or impair functioning in social or occupational realms


Abnormal behaviour patterns involve...

Excessively rigid patterns of behaviour or ways of relating to others that become self-defeating b/c prevents adjustment to external demands


What is true love?

When Alyssa and Chris try to help out eachother as much as possible. Or how when they're apart they always think about each other and are reminded about each other in the smallest of things. Or how we've changed each other's lives and have been happily together for 2 years now. That's true love. - Chris :) Thanks for getting me a fork at edo hun


What is Ego Syntonic?

behaviour or feelings that are perceived as natural or compatible parts of self (this is me, take it or leave it)


What is Ego Dystonic?

behaviour or feelings that are perceived to be foreign or alien to one's self-identity (don't fit in with you)


Are people with personality disorders usually ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic?

Ego Syntonic


What is Paranoid Personality Disorder characterized by?

Persistent suspiciousness of the motives of others, but not to the point of holding clear-cut delusions
Mistrustful, hard time making friends


What is the prevalence of Paranoid Personality Disorder?

0.5- 2.5%
More common in men than women


What is Schizoid Personality Disorder characterized by?

A persistent lack of interest in social relationships, flattened affect and social withdrawal



In what disorder to people find more of an attachment to animals rather than people?

Schizoid Personality Disorder


Do men and women with Schizoid personality disorder usually end up getting married?

Men- rarely date or marry

Women- more likely to accept romantic advances and marry, but rarely initiate relationships or develop strong attachments to their partner


How do the emotions in Schizoid personality disorder differ from that in people with schizophrenia?

Schizoid personalities rarely express emotions and are distant and aloof.. but their emotions are not as shallow or blunted as people with schizophrenia


What is Schizotypal Personality disorder characterized by?

Characterized by eccentricities or oddities of thought and behaviour but WITHOUT clearly psychotic features


Who does schizotypal personalities apply to?

To people who have difficulties forming close relationships and whose behaviour, mannerisms and thought patterns are peculiar or odd but not disturbed enough to be schizophrenia

Still want relationships but are uncomfortable in social situations


Who is schizotypal personality more common in

In men

Affects 3% of population


If someone has both schizotypal and schizoid personality it would resemble...



What are the three disorders classified under Odd or Eccentric behaviour?



What is Antisocial personality disorder?

Characterized by a chronic pattern of antisocial and irresponsible behaviour and lack of remorse

Violate rights of others and break laws


People with antisocial personality tend to be good at manipulating because they have...

superficial charm, charismatic


What is the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder?

More common in men

1.7-3.7% in Canada


What is the difference between a psychopath and a sociopath

Psychopath: born that way, wired differently, nature

Sociopath: as a result of environment, nurture


How old do you have to be to be diagnosed with antisocial personality?

Over 18

Between 8-18 would be conduct disorder
Under 8 would be oppositional defiant disorder


What is a key feature of people with antisocial personality?

Tend to harm animals


What is psychopathy?

Characterized by traits such as shallow emotions, selfishness, arrogance, superficial charm, deceitfulness, lack of empathy, irresponsibility, socially deviant lifestyle, impulsiveness


What is factor 1 and factor 2 psychopathy?

Factor 1: more lifelong
Factor 2: grow out of it around age 40-50


Are all psychopaths criminals?

No! Not all criminals show signs of psychopathy, only minority of people with these personality traits actually become psychopaths

Many psychopaths are law-abiding and successful in life, but just have a personality style that disregards the feelings of others


Which occupations have the most psychopaths?

CEO's, executives, because don't have same guilt over lying or manipulating to get to the top


Are psychopaths more likely to reoffend and commit violent crimes?



Does Antisocial personality disorder cut across all ethnicities?

Yes! No differences in ethnic or racial differences in the rates of the disorder


What are the psychophysiological and biological factors that are related to antisocial personality and psychopathy?

-lack of emotional responsiveness
-the craving for stimulation model
-lack of restraint on impulsivity
-limbic abnormalities
-not as responsive to electric shock punishment


What is Borderline personality disorder?

Characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in relationships, self-image, and mood.

Lack of control over impulses

Uncertain about values, goals, careers, friends, etc.

PUSH and PULL- want relationship but then scared they will abandon you so you pull away, but then you want it again so you get clingy


Can people with borderline personality disorder handle being alone?

No, they will make desperate efforts to avoid feelings of abandonment

-Usually had traumatic childhood experiences -- results in self-harm tendencies, suicides


When do people with borderline personality show improvements?

Age 40-50


What are people with borderline personality on the border of?

somewhere between neurotic and psychotic


Adolf Hitler had what disorder...

Borderline Personality Disorder
-had the "all or nothing" thinking that is characteristic of the disorder


What is Histrionic Personality Disorder?

Characterized by excessive need to be the centre of attention and receive reassurance, praise, and approval from others

Diagnosed more in women


What is the prevalence of borderline personality?

More common in women

2% of population


People with Histrionic personality are trying to compensate for what?

lack of self-esteem

Usually appear overly dramatic and emotional

Want to be actresses or models


What is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?

Characterized by the adoption of an inflated self-image and demands for constant attention and admiration, among other features

Brag about accomplishments and expect people to praise them even if their accomplishments are ordinary



People with Narcissistic personality have fantasies about

success and power

Tend to be workaholics so that they can get a lot of praise


How are narcissistic people's relationships

One-sided, only like you if you can do something for them


What are all of the disorders characterized by Dramatic, Emotional or Eccentric behaviour?



What is Avoidant Personality Disorder?

Characterized by avoidance of social relationships due to fear of rejection

Unwilling to enter a relationship without reassurance

Not afraid of abandonment, afraid of REJECTION


People with Avoidant personalities tend to avoid what situations?

Tend to avoid group occupational or recreational activities

Tend to have few close relationships outside of family

Often have social phobia


What is the prevalence of Avoidant personality?

Equally common in men and women

0.5 and 1% of population


What is Dependent Personality Disorder?

Characterized by difficulties making independent decisions and by overly dependent behaviour

Excessive need to be taken care of by others


Who is Dependent personality more common in?

Women. Diagnosis often applied to women who fear abandonment, will tolerate husbands who openly cheat on them


What is Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder?

Characterized by rigid ways of relating to others, perfectionist tendencies, lack of spontaneity and high attention to detail

Does not have the behaviours or obsessions, it is just being a perfectionist


What are the prevalence rates of Obsessive Compulsive personality?

2x as common in men than in women

1% of population


What is a common trait of people with anxious or fearful behaviour?

"A place for everything and everything in its place"
-excessive needs for orderliness in their environment


What is one problem with classifying these disorders?

Many overlap, so people often end up being diagnosed with multiple


Who are the three main people in the psychodynamic perspective on personality disorders?

-Hans Kohut
-Otto Kernberg
-Margaret Mahler


What concept did Hans Kohut come up with?

Self psychology: the processes that normally lead to the achievement of a cohesive sense of self or in narcissistic personality, a grandiose sense of self


What concept did Otto Kernberg come up with?

Splitting: inability of some people to reconcile the positive and negative aspects of themselves and others into a cohesive integration --> resulting in sudden or radical shifts between strong positive and negative feelings


What concept did Margaret Mahler believe in?

Symbiotic: used to describe the state of oneness that normally exists between a mother and infant in which the infants identity is fused with the mothers


What are learning theory perspectives on personality disorders?

Focus on the acquisition of behaviour than on the notion of enduring personality traits
-Doesn't support personality behaviours because doesn't think any of these are innate, thinks they are just maladaptive behaviours


What is Family Perspectives on Personality disorders?

link a history of physical or sexual abuse or neglect in childhood to the development of a disorder


What are Cognitive-Behavioural perspectives on Personality Disorders?

Problem-solving therapy focuses on helping people develop more effective problem solving skills


Biological Perspectives on Personality Disorders?

Genetic factors in antisocial, schizotypal and borderline personalities

Neuropsychological factors


What are Sociocultural views on personality disorders?

Low family income, lone parent family, low education and family dysfunction are all risk factors associated with behavioural problems in children


Psychodynamic treatment

become more aware of the root of the self-defeating behaviour patterns and learn adaptive ways of relating to others


Behaviour Approaches to treatment

change behaviour rather than personality


Biological Approaches to treatment

Drug therapy does not work


Canadian Treatment services

1) Psychotherapy should focus on reducing extremeness of traits and bring them into awareness
2) give historical perspective so patient can see how his behaviour is shaped by past
3) Involves change