Medications (quick class/action) Flashcards Preview

San Diego EMS Protocols 2019 > Medications (quick class/action) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medications (quick class/action) Deck (24)
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1

Acetaminophen

Class:
-Analgesic/antipyretic

Action:
-Inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins which transmit pain signals and induce fever.
-Reduces pain by blocking the signals produced by prostaglandins.

2

Adenosine

Class:
-Antiarrythmic

Action:
-Slows electrical conduction through AV node, and interrupts re-entry pathway, converting SVT to NSR.

3

Albuterol

Class:
-Bronchodilator : Sympathomimetic (beta-2 specific)

Action:
-Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by stimulating beta-2 adrenergic receptors.
-Produces bronchodilation, relieves bronchospasm, and reduces airway resistance.

4

Amiodorone Hydrochloride

Class:
-Antiarrhythmic

Action:
-Blocks sodium, potassium, and calcium channels in cardiac cells slowing conduction and prolongs repolarization.
-Has alpha and beta adrenergic blocking properties causing negative inotropic effects and reduces peripheral vascular resistance (afterload).

5

Aspirin

Class:
-Platelet aggregation inhibitor

Action:
-Inhibits normal tendency for platelets to accumulate inside injured or occluded coronary arteries, thereby improving blood flow through the vessels to better perfuse the heart.
-Blocks formation of Thromboxin A2.

6

Atropine

Class:
-Antiarrhythmic
-Anticholinergic

Action:
-Competes with acetylcholine for receptor sites blocking the PNS response at SA & AV nodes.
-Increases heart rate by increasing electrical conduction through the heart.
-Positive chronotropic properties with little or no inotropic effects.
-Inhibits secretions by decreasing PNS effect on bronchial, salivary, sweat, and GI glands.

7

Atrovent

Class:
-Bronchodilator : anticholinergic

Action:
-Antagonizes the action of acetylcholine, preventing the interaction of acetylcholine with muscarinic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle causing bronchodilation.
-Dries respiratory tract secretions.

8

Calcium Chloride

Class:
-Electrolyte

Action:
-Increases myocardial contractility.
-Increases ventricular automaticity.
-Reverses cardio-electric changes produced by hyperkalemia.
-Shifts potassium back into the cell to prevent intravascular hyperkalemia.

9

Charcoal

Class:
-Absorbent

Action:
-Binds and absorbs ingested toxins present in the GI tract.
-Inhibits intestinal absorption, preventing systemic toxicity.

10

Dextrose (D50/D10)

Class:
-Carbohydrate

Action:
-Increases blood glucose by providing a quick release of free sugar into the circulation.

11

Diphenhydramine

Class:
-Antihistamine

Action:
-Binds to histamine receptor sites blocking H1 and H2 receptors
>H1 causes bronchoconstriction, airway swelling, and
vasodilation.
>H2 causes secretion of gastric acid.
-Does not prevent histamine release.

12

Dopamine Hydrochloride

Class:
-Vasopressor: Sympathomimetic (both alpha and beta properties)

Action:
-At low and medium doses, selectively dilates blood vessels supplying the brain, kidneys, heart, and gastrointestinal tract.
-At medium to high doses, increases cardiac output by improving contractility and stroke volumem thereby increasing blood pressure.
-At high doses, causes vasoconstriction and increased heart rate.

13

Epinephrine

Class:
-Catecholamine: Sympathomimetic (both alpha and beta effects)

Action:
-On the bronci: bronchodilation (beta 2)
-On the peripheral vasculature : vasoconstriction (alpha)
-On the heart:
>Increased heart rate (chronotropic)
>Increased contractility (inotropic)
>Increased AV conduction (dromotropic)
>Increased automaticity (dromotropic)

14

Fentanyl Citrate

Class:
-Analgesic: Opioid Agonist

Action:
-Potent narcotic analgesic and sedative.

15

Glucagon

Class:
-Antihypoglycemis: Pancreatic hormone

Action:
-Increases blood glucose by converting glycogen stored in the liver to glucose.
-Inhibits synthesis of glycogen from glucose.

16

Ketamine

Class:
-Anesthetic/Analgesic

Action:
-Low & slow dosing provides strong analgesic effects acting on the limbic system and cortex to block afferent transmission of impulses associated with pain perception.
-High & rapid dosing provides fast acting dissociative anesthetia (blocks sensory perception) which can lead to distortion of sights, colors, sounds, self, and one's environment.

17

Lidocaine

Class:
-Antiarrhythmic/Anesthetic

Action:
-Depresses depolarization and automaticity in the ventricles.
-Increases the ventricular fibrillation threshold by increasing phase IV repolarization.
-Amide-type local anesthetic.

18

Midazolam

Class:
-Benzodiazepine: Sedative/Anticonvulsant

Action:
-CNS depressant.
-Produces anterograde amnesia, then sedation.
-Stops and prevents seizures.

19

Morphine Sulfate

Class:
-Opioid
-Narcotic analgesic

Action:
-CNS depressant acting on opiate receptors in the brain.
-Potent analgesic and sedative.

20

Naloxone

Class:
-Opioid antagonist

Action:
-Reverses respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotensive effects of opioid overdose by occupying opiate receptor sites.

21

Nitroglycerin

Class:
-Vasodilator

Action:
-Produces vasodilation by relaxing systemic venous and arterial vessels, thereby:
>Decreasing preload & afterload
>Decreasing myocardial workload and
>Decreasing mycoardial O2 consumption
>Dilates coronary arteries

22

Normal Saline

Class:
-Electrolyte/isotonic crystalloid

Action:
-Electrolyte solution, which is osmotically equivalent to blood.
-Increases the circulating volume of the vascular system. (2/3 of infused volume leaves the vascular space within 1 hour)

23

Ondansetron

Class:
-Antiemetic

Action:
-Blocks serotonin receptors in vagus nerve terminals and in small intestine that trigger the vomiting reflex.

24

Sodium Bicarbonate

Class:
-Electrolyte
-Alkalinizing agent

Action:
-Reduces acidosis of causes alkalosis by direct release of bicarbonate ion into the circulation.