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A2 Chemistry Unit 2 > Medicinal Chemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medicinal Chemistry Deck (28)
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1

What is the acid mantle

Think protective layer on surface of skin

2

What is the function of the acid mantle (5)

Protect skin
Barrier to viruses and bacteria
Skin healthy glow
Desquamation (shed skin cells)
Prevent water leaving skin surface

3

What are factors that affect skin pH (6)

Stress
Pollutants
Dust
UV radiation
Hormone changes
Harsh cleaning products

4

What causes warts

HPV ➡️ excessive keratin on top layer of skin
Keratin is a hard protein and extra produces a wart

5

How are warts removed

Corrosive chemicals
They destroy living tissue in the wart and in the area around it

6

Draw the structure and give the systematic name of Salic acid

See notes

7

What effect does the Cl atom have in chloroethanoic acid

Cl draws electrons towards it as it is electronegative
This pulls the electrons towards the O in the O-H bond
The H is now more positive and exposed
Thus making it a stronger acid

8

What effect does an alkyl group have on an acid

It pushes electrons away
So pushed the electrons towards the H of the O-H bond
Weaker acid

9

Which ion is know for it’s antimicrobial properties

Ag+
Silver (I) ion

10

What substance used to be used to treat eye disease and why

Silver (I) nitrate
It’s antimicrobial properties

11

How many coordinate bonds can the Fe^2+ ion form

6

12

Describe the haemoglobin molecule

Fe^2+ ion surrounded by porphyrin ring
Forms 6 coordinate bonds
4 with N of haem
1 with the protein globin
1 with oxygen

13

Describe conformational change

Haemoglobin binds with more oxygen at different sites

14

Describe the effect of carbon monoxide on haemoglobin

It binds irreversibly to the Fe^2+
As it is more stable than the complex with oxygen
This prevents the blood from carrying oxygen
Causing death

15

Write the equation for the reaction of Ca^2+ and edta

See notes

16

Draw the edta ion

See notes

17

What is the definition of sequestering

Formation of a complex so that an ion is no longer available for reactions

18

How can edta be used in blood banks

Edta forms highly stable complex with Ca^2+
Ca^2+ involved in several steps in blood clotting
Removal of Ca^2+ by sequestering them means they are no longer available for blood clotting
Prevents the stored blood from clotting

19

Draw cisplatin and transplatin, which one is the anti cancer drug

See notes
Cisplatin

20

How does cisplatin work

Reacts with water ➡️ chloro ligand substituted for water ligand

Then either of these two:
1. N in guanine binds to Pt and displaces the water ligand
Or
2. H on ammonia ligand on cisplatin H binds to N or O of guanine

Either inhibits DNA replication and causes the death of the cell

21

What is the definition of DNA replication

Process by which a double stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce 2 identical DNA molecules

22

What is the risk of anti cancer drugs and how can this be prevented

That they may damage normal cells
To reduce the chances of this it is given in short bursts

23

What can some side effects of anticancer drugs

Lose hair
Temporary/permanent sterility

24

What causes indigestion

Excess HCl in the stomach

25

What are the remedies called for indigestion and how do they work
Give examples

Antacids
Neutralise excess acid
Metal carbonates
Hydrogencarbonates
Hydroxides

26

How can you test the purity and identity of a drug

TLC
Then further analysis with GLC-MS

27

What is GLC-MS

A gas liquid chromatograph attached to a mass spectrometer

28

How does GLC-MS work

GLC- separates drug components
Mass spec - analyse components and compare them to database of known compounds to identify