memory and depression tute 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in memory and depression tute 1 Deck (10):
1

Types of Depression

-Reactive
-Major Depressive Disorder / Major
Depressive Episode
-Persistent Depressive Disorder
-Bipolar Disorder

2

signs/symptoms

-Lowered Mood
-Behavioural Changes
-Sleeping less/more
-Eating less/more
-Increased lethargy
-Psychomotor retardation

3

Epidemiology

-Approximately 15% -20% of individuals
will suffer from depression at some point
in their lifetime
-Depression is best treated with a
combination of pharmacological and non
-pharmacological treatment

4

Cognitive Effects of Depression

-Cognition is usually normal, or near normal
-Some depressed individuals experience
genuine cognitive difficulties Information processing speed
-Memory
-Attention
-Reasoning

5

Depression Related Dementia (DRD)

-Typically occurs in elderly patients
Can be misdiagnosed as Alzheimer’s disease or other age-related diseases
-Characterised by:
Withdrawal of interest
Psychomotor retardation
Laboured thinking
Impaired cognition

6

The memory symptoms of DRD

-Information processing speed
Slowed Attention
Poor sustained attention
Preoccupied with depressive themes
Reasoning
Impaired working memory

7

DRD symptoms continued

-Anterograde memory
Impaired new learning with very flattened learning curve
Impaired delayed recall
Recognition memory is relatively intact
-Retrograde memory
Impairments can occur
Can experience temporal confusion

8

DRD vs. other memory disorders:
Brain Areas Responsible

-Memory impairments not suggestive of temporal lobe dysfunction
-More consistent with:
Reduced encoding due to attention deficits
Impaired retrieval due to frontal lobe
dysfunction

9

neuroimaging in DRD

-No structural changes
evident
-Functional imaging reveals some changes
Generalised reduction in function
Often particular reduction in frontal lobe and cingulate
regions
Often see functional reduction in subcortical region

10

DRD Recovery

-Cognition improves with successful treatment of depression
-Traditionally considered full recovery would occur
-Emerging evidence that neurotransmitter
‘imbalances’ in chronic depression might cause permanent changes to underlying neural structures
?Permanent mild memory difficulties