Lecture 3- Cognitive Theories Of Memory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3- Cognitive Theories Of Memory Deck (28):

Definition of memory?

The mental process of acquiring and retaining information for later retrieval


Explicit memory?

Tests depend on conscious recollection of learning event
Tests enquire about some specific study episode/ learning event


Implicit memory

-no reference to initial encoding episode and no associated awareness of engaging in recall is necessary
- tests depend on a processing task and then measuring extent to which previous exposure affects speed/ accuracy


Explicit memory continued

- death of processing during encoding influences level of performance
- level of performance not affected by perceptual characteristics (e.g font type)
- amnesia is described as explicit memory deficit


Implicit memory continued

-often insensitive to level of encoding
- sensitive to physical characteristics of stimuli
Classical 'amnesia' does not affect implicit memory


Problem with implicit vs. explicit dichotomy

There are subtle difference with procedural and declarative memory
The term explicit and implicit relates to performance on particular memory tests
Procedural and declarative focused on cognitive processes and is more meaningful as literature was informed by amnesia patients


Procedural memory

- storage of skills an procedures
- very important in motor performance
Supported by memory systems that are independent of hippocampus system ( cerebellum, basal ganglia do play a role)


Declarative memory

-accumulation of facts/ data derived from learning experiences
- due to the relational nature of hippocampus system, declarative memory is relational- system outcome of processing from many systems.
- activation of declarative memory causes activation of related memories
- memory activation can be independent of environment


Models of memory

4 models
Serial models
-Atkinson-shiffrin model
-tulvings model
Parallel model
-parallel distributed processing model


Atkinson-shiffrin model

Sensory memory- iconic and ecoic
Working memory- contains new info and info extracted from ltm and you can operate on those bits of info
Long term memory- info needs to be rehearsed in working memory to be remembered


Levels of processing

Crack and Lockhart
- info retained according to level of processing it has undergone
Shallow- fragile memory trade that is easily lost
Maintenance- repeat/ route learning without thinking about it
Elaborative- much more likely to end up with durable memory trace and operate it on existing knowledge


Tulvings model of memory

- procedural

Unlike previous models this was based on people with dysfunctional memories


Patella distributed processing

- memory is activation of connections in different areas ( distribution) simultaneously ( parallel)
-learning- strength of connections between relevant sites is changed
Memory activation just about distribution of network of systems


Comparison of models of memory

None of the models fully account for all research data in isolation
Serial models are most useful for study of amnesia


Tulvings view on Episodic memory

- allowing re- experience though autonoetic awareness, previous experiences and to project similar experiences into the future.
- conscious recollection of ones past


Autonoetic awareness

Highly personalised feeling of (re) experiencing oneself in the autobiographical past or present


Tulvings view on episodic memory continued

- opearations depend on semantic and other forms of memory
- shares neural mechanisms and cognitive processes with other systems
- is additionally subserved by specific mechanisms and processes that are not components of any other system
- unique system with different cognitive competencies


Semantic memory

' knowledge memory'
Memory system that makes possible acquisition, retention, and use of factual information in the broadest sense'
Not purely concerned with language of ver info
No autonoetic awareness of personal past ( don't need to remember where you learnt fact)
Can start as episodic and become semantic


Semantic- episodic dissociation

Controversy over how independent episodic and semantic memory are
Squire and Zola- entirely independent (parallel) within declarative memory but both dependent on same biological system- you can damage one without effecting the other
Tulvings- episodic memory and semantic memory share many features but are not parallel systems


Squire and Zola

Declarative memory is dependent on hippocampal system
Damage results in equal impairment to episodic and semantic memories
Amnesia patients have equal difficulties with event and fact memory e.g. HM



Serial parallel independent (SPI) hypothesis
- encoding into episodic memory relies on semantic system
-episodic memory unique extension of semantic memory
- retrieval is independent, can be supported by either system or both
-both rely on each other
- episodic encoding relies on semantic
- damage to semantic will effect episodic


Vargha- khadem

Seminal study examining special group of children
Investigated 3 patients who had suffered very bilateral medial temporal lobe injury


Vargha- khadem continued

- assessed with MRI and spectroscopy
- all 3 have abnormally small bilateral hippocampi
All have 3 relatively intact extra- hippocampal temporal lobes
- all have significantly impaired memory function, relative to intellectual capacity
- could not function independently but acquiring info on a normal level


Vargah khadem 3

Everyday memory deficits included
- spatial
- temporal
- episodic
Semantic meme it patient poor semantic memory but intact episodic- which goes against Tulvings model


Vargha- khadem 4

Educational achievement- all in mainstream school with normal IQ
All have semantic memory intact


Conclusion from V-K study

Intact semantic memory and impaired episodic memory - these systems must be functionally dissociable
Episodic memory relies on hippocampal circuit
Findings fit with Tulvings model- episodic only relies on semantic!!


Episodic- semantic dissociation

Meaningful to use as framework to understand patient populations who differ in episodic and semantic memory
Interactions between these systems occur but not well understood


Finding against Tulving and v-k study

Semantic dementia patients have poor semantic memory but intact episodic