Menopause Flashcards Preview

Primary Care 2 > Menopause > Flashcards

Flashcards in Menopause Deck (27):

Natural Menopause

permanent cessation of menstrual periods, determined RETROSPECTIVELY, after a woman has experienced 12 months of amenorrhea with out any pathological or physiological cause


Median age of menopause



Ovarian follicular depletion results in this during menopause

HYPOestrogenemia and HIGH follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations


Primary ovarian insufficiency

menopause before age 40, also called premature ovarian failure- considered to be abnormal


Perimenopause - when and what are the s/s

after the reproductive years but before menopause usually 4 years before the last menstrual period -- characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, endocrine changes and hot flashes, sleep disturbances, mood symptoms, vaginal dryness, and changes in lipids and bone loss


Most common menopausal symptom

hot flashes seen in up to 80 percent of women


Late reproductive years s/s

serum inhibin B decreases, FSH increases slightly, estradiol is preserved, luteal phase progesterone declines as fertility potential declines. follicular phase before ovulation SHORTENS. Typically in their 40s.


Perimenopause s/s and age of onset

ovarian follicular depletions leads to a change in intermentrual interval (lengthened) cycle usually 25-35 days between but now 40-50 days. and a change in bleeding pattern, and hormonal s/s. Usually age 47. FSH > 25 but will fluctuate


Late transition

one to three years before the final menstrual period, lengthened intermentrual interval with skipped cycles, amenorrhea episodes, and an increased in anovulatory cycles


the more irregular the cycle the more dramatic fluctuation in

FSH and estradiol, may be high FSH with menopause but then a return to normal premenopausal range


Increase risk of what during the year leading to the final menstrual period

accelerated bone loss, cardiovascular risk. With 3 months of amenorrhea can expect their FMP within the next 4 years.


Hallmark s/s of perimenopause and menopause

hot flash, also a/w new onset depression, vaginal dryness and sleep disturbances


Hot flashes sensation

heat on the upper chest and face, rapidly becoming generalized 2-4 mins with profuse sweating, palpitations, anxiety. can have one per hour each day, very common at night. untreated stop within 4-5 years of onset.


Sleep disturbances

arousal from sleep from hot flashes



can lead to sleep disturbances as well. can also have restless leg or sleep apnea.


Depression risk

significant increase risk of new onset depression during menopausal transition. perimenopausal 2.5x more likely than premenopause -- estrogen therapy to treat


Vaginal dryness

epithelium of vaginal walls is estrogen dependent and deficiency leads to thinning and dryness -- vaginal atrophy, on exam vagina will appear pale. can be itchy and women often experience dysparenia


Sexual function

estrogen deficiency leads to decrease in blood flow to the vagina and vulva, leads to decrease vaginal lubrication and sexual dysfunction, vagina may lose elasticity and become shorter -- responds to estrogen therapy, also cervix can atrophy and become flush with the top of the vaginal vault


Cognitive changes

memory loss, difficulty concentrating, estrogen beneficial in cognitive function



not totally protected from pregnancy until amenorrhea for >12 mos or CONSISTENTLY elevated FSH >30


not all hot flashes are from estrogen deficiency- other differentials?

pheochromocytoma (worst it could be)
thyroid malfunction
psychosocial symptoms


first measurable sign of reproductive ageing

FSH elevation >10 IU/L in early follicular stage (days 2- 5 of the mentrual cycle)


most follicular loss results from what?

atresia, NOT ovulation



phase in a women's aging process marking the transition from reproductive to non reproductive states, is a process, not a point in time


vasomotor symptoms

aka hot flashes, hallmark sx of perimenopause/ climacteric, worse at night, interrupts sleep. can continue even in post- menopause


making the definitive diagnosis of menopause

no ONE test, woman has reached menopause when FSH are consistently >30 (caveat- levels often inconsistent for a temporary span of time)


if dx of menopause is not clear..

Rule out other DD