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Flashcards in menopause HRT Deck (39)
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1

signs and symptoms of hypoestrogenic state

menstrual cycle alterations (dysfunctional bleeding)

hot flashes
mood/sleep/acute cognitive changes

UG symptoms
CV disease
Osteoporosis

2

indications for non hormonal

m

3

cessation of menstruation for ______ year (s)= menopause

1

4

menopause before 40 is

premature ovarian failure

Savage syndrome

5

FSH goes up or down with menopause?

up up up because of lack of negative feedback

6

maximum germ cells at what week?

20 weeks gestation

7

why does estrogen, progesterone decline?

decrease in granulosa cells

8

pure antagonists or partial antagonists take advantage of the fact that

Estrogen receptors can be fully activated, partially activated, not activated

9

irregular bleeding

endometrial hyperplasia risk

put on low dose OCP

10

hot flashes

most common symptom 3-5 years into menopause

25% beyond 5 years

11

why do hot flashes occur?

increased core body, skin blood flow, heart rate

12

who gets the most hot flashes?

african american

13

ERT and HRT within 2-3 weeks help reduce severity of

hot flashes

14

alternative approaches to hot flashes

lifestyle

clonidine

megestrol

SSRI/SNRI

Vitamin E, dong quai, black cohash

Phytoestrogens

15

sleep quality affected by

hot flashes and sleep makes the mood worse

16

cystocele, rectocele, prolapse increase as

vagina and vulvar epithelium thins

17

when does vaginal dryness occur?

1-3 years post menopausal

18

estriol is E

E1, formed with enzymes from adrenal of fetus

19

estrone is E produced

E3 in adipose, MOST COMMON DURING MENOPAUSE peripherally

20

estradiol is E and is the

E2 most common, from the dominant follicle/corpus luteum

21

micronized 17beta estradiol forms?

tablet, cream, patch, ring

22

micronized progesterone is

natural

23

breaking down more bone than making it leading to less dense bone

osteoporosis

24

why does calcium not work with Ca supplements

stromal structure that holds the calcium gets less dense. Existing bone is stronger but doesn't reduce risk of breaking from stromal insufficiency

25

what affects survivability of patients with osteoporosis

breaking a hip (50* mortality)

26

osteopenia

loss of bone but no increase of fracture, not as raised T score (middle score)

27

risk factors for osteoporosis

steroids
smoking
family hx

28

reduce osteoporosis

high BMI
current estrogen
alcohol use
former estrogen
Regular estrogen

29

osteoporosis management for normal, osteopenia, osteoporosis

osteopenia without fracture hx: no tx

osteopenia with fracture hx: treat

osteoporosis: treat

30

SERM medication to reduce vertebral fractures and breast CA risk

Raloxifene