# Meta analysis. Flashcards

What sort of review has increased objectivity?

Systematic.

What sort of summary does a systematic review provide?

Qualitative only.

What sort of bias can be introduced with a systematic review?

Publication bias.

What does ‘meta analysis’ refer to?

The analysis of analysis.

What does a meta analysis do increased compared to a systematic review?

Increase objectivity.

What are the two main limitations of using a single study when looking at research evidence?

- Poor study design and low numbers will result in false negative results.
- Only a subset of the population will be studied.

For studies to be combined what must the treatments used in each studies be?

Very similar.

What three questions often drive a meta analysis?

- What is the average effect of a treatment?
- Who benefits most from the treatment?
- In what situations will the treatment work?

What is the purpose of producing a review protocol before conducting a meta analysis?

To indicate the methods used in advance that aim to minimize the systematic errors.

The inclusion/ exclusion of studies in a meta analysis are defined by PICOS. What does PICOS stand for?

Patient/ population. Intervention. Comparison. Outcome. Study Design.

What is PRISMA?

‘Transparent reporting of systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses’

Provides detailed guidelines regarding the preparation of Meta Analysis.

Fill in the gaps regarding what is includes in a meta-analysis review protocol.

- ______ selection.
- ______ question.
- Study_______ and ______ criteria (PICOS).
- Identify ______ _______.
- Select _______
- ______ data.
- ________ assessment
- How will study results be _______?
- How will results and _______ be presented?

- Background.
- Research.
- Inclusion/ Exclusion.
- Research evidence.
- Studies.
- Extract.
- Quality.
- Synthesised.
- Conclusions.

What is the individual unit used in the statistical analysis in a meta analysis?

A sample.

What are the two types of goals in a meta-analysis

- Synthetic goals.

2. Analytical goals.

Describe what synthetic goals are in meta-analysis?

To estimate of an overall summary of the average effect across studies while increasing precision by obtaining data from multiple studies.

Describe what analytical goals are in meta-analysis?

To identify and estimate differences between study specific effects (heterogeneity) between studies. To track down the source of this variation.

If the endpoint of a meta-analysis is continuous what summary statistics should you calculate?

The differences in means and the standard error of this difference/ CI.

If the endpoint of a meta-analysis is binary what summary statistics should you calculate?

The log (odds ratio) and its standard error.

If the endpoint of a meta-analysis is a survival endpoint what summary statistics should you calculate?

The log (hazard ratio) and its standard error.

What combined effect is shown in the diamond of forest plots?

The weighted average of the effects of each study.

What is the weight assigned to each study proportional to?

The precision of the study.