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Flashcards in Metabolic & Diabetes Deck (31)
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1

Why is hyponatraemia dangerous?

Fluid shifts-> cerebral oedema
Drowsy
Fitting
Respiratory arrest

2

How much sodium is in normal saline?

0.9%
150mg

3

Why does lactic acidosis occur?

Lack of tissue perfusion
Anaerobic respiration
Build up of lactate

4

Define hypoglycaemia

Blood glucose<4mmol/l
Mild: if pt self treats
Severe: if 3rd party is involved

5

Early symptoms of hypoglycaemia

Adrenergic effects:
Sweating
Tachycardia
Palpitations
Pallor
Hunger
Restlessness

6

Late symptoms of hypoglycaemia

Neuroglycopenic effects:
Confusion
Slurred speech
Drowsiness
Numbness of nose/lips/fingers
Anxiety
Blurred vision

7

Risk factors for hypoglycaemia

• Reduced intake (eg hospital food, fasting in Ramadan)
• Increased exercise/physiotherapy
• Over dosed insulin (wrong vol, stat doses, IV insulin without glucose)
• Insulin given without meals
• Problems with monitoring
• Recovery from acute illness
• Major amputation
• Discontinuation of long term steroids
• Renal dysfunction

8

Treatment of hypoglycaemia

Sugar! (avoid fatty foods)
Recheck blood glucose after 10 mins (x3)
If still low then 10% dextrose infusion 150-200ml or IM glucagon

9

If severe hypoglycaemia and blood glucose is less than 2.2, what needs to be investigated?

Whether cause is an insulinoma, insulin poisoning or fasting alcoholic ketoacidosis
Insulin levels (raised in insulinoma/insulin poisoning)
C-peptide (raised in insulinoma)
3-OH butyrate (raised in fasting ketosis)

10

What does the DVLA need to know about diabetics?

• If lorry/bus drivers are taking oral meds or insulin for diabetes
• If drivers are on insulin
• If there is any impairment of consciousness with hypoglycaemia
• If there are any episodes of severe hypoglycaemia in the last 12 months
• If hypoglycaemia occurs when driving.

11

Define DKA

Diabetic ketoacidosis
T1DM insulin deficiency
-Hyperglycaemia (>11mmol/L)
-Metabolic acidosis (ph<7.3, low bicarb)
-Ketonaemia (ß-OHbutyrate>3mmol/l in blood, ++ in urine)

12

Treatment of DKA

• Replace fluids (500ml normal saline over 15 mins, 500ml normal saline over 45mins)
• Replace and correct electrolyte abnormalities (K+!)
• Replace insulin (50 units made up to 50ml with saline, infused at 0.1 units/kg/hour) after 1 hr of fluids
• Gradually reduce serum glucose concentration (3mmol/l/hr)
• Gradually correct ketosis (0.5mmol/L/hr)
• Identify treatment of co-morbid precipitants and give LMWH prophylactically
• Ensure long acting regime is still given on time

13

Define HHS

HHS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State)
• Hypovolaemia
• Hyperglycaemia (>30mmol/l)
• Raised osmolarity (>320mmol/kg)
• Ketones are not present (<3mmol/l)
• Acidosis is not present (ph>7.3, bicarb>15mmol/l)

14

Treatment of HHS

1. Normalise osmolarity (glucose and sodium and urea)
2. Replace fluids (1L normal saline)
3. Monitor and replace electrolytes
4. Normalise blood glucose (5mmol/hr primarily due to rehydration)
5. LMWH prophylactically

15

What can initiate RAAS?

Sodium down, potassium up or hypotension-> juxtaglomerular cells -> RAAS

16

How does aldosterone act?

Aldosterone works at distal convoluted tubule, sodium and water reabsorption (in exchange for either K+ or H+)

17

What acts in opposition to aldosterone?

Spironolactone
ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide)

18

What is the 1st step when you see a low sodium on a blood test result?

Check osmolality
Is it really low?

19

If the osmolality of a hyponatraemic sample is increased or normal, what would this indicate?

Increased osmolality: Hyperglycaemia/mannitol
Normal osmolality: Lipaemia/hyperproteinaemia

20

If the osmolality of a hyponatraemic sample is low, what next?

Assess extracellular fluid volume
Increased/normal/decreased

21

Hyponatraemia with decreased osmolality and increased ECF volume indicates what?

Na and H20 excess- oedema
2º hyperaldosteronism
CCF
Hepatic failure (lack of albumin produced)
Nephrotic syndrome (albumin lost)

22

Hyponatraemia with decreased osmolality and normal ECF volume indicates what?

H20 excess
Acutely: increased intake and reduced output
Chronic: Impaired excretion
SIADH (urine osmolality>plasma osmolality)

23

Hyponatraemia with decreased osmolality and decreased ECF volume indicates what?

True Na depletion
Renal failure
GI loss (diarrhoea)
Cutaneous loss (fever/sweating)
Look at urine osmolality and Na: are kidneys working and concentrating urine?

24

How do you calculate osmolality?

2(Na+K+) + urea + glucose

25

What happens in hyperosmolality?

• Thirst from hypothalamus
• ADH from posterior pituitary
• Redistribution of water from ICF to ECF
ADH reabsorbs free water in collecting duct, concentrated urine.

26

What needs to be normal to diagnose SIADH?

Normal renal, thyroid and adrenal function

27

Treatment of SIADH

Fluid restrict slowly
Na should rise

28

Name 5 causes of SIADH

• Lung disease (TB, pneumonia, empyema, tumours, COPD)
• CNS disease (Mass, Guillain Barre, subarachnoid haemorrhage)
• Drug induced (Nicotine, phenothiazines, tricyclics)
• Tumours (pancreatic, uterine, leukaemia)
• Pain, opiates, nausea

29

Name 5 causes of a hypokalaemic blood test?

• Drip arm contamination (urea and creatinine also really low)
• Decreased intake (eg tea and toast diet of elderly/anorexia/alcoholism)
• Increased losses (diuretics, vomiting, diarrhoea, aldosterone excess, renal)
• Redistribution (alkalosis correction so K+ goes into cells)
• Glucose infusion, insulin

30

What does a hypokalaemic ECG show?

Wide inverted t waves, u waves