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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (15)
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1

Define cachexia

Severe body weight, fat, muscle loss and increased protein catabolism due to underlying disease(s)

2

Define sarcopenia

Degenerative loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing

3

Define malnutrition

Inadequate consumption of macro or micronutrients to meet the metabolic demands of the body (under/over nutrition)

4

Define undernutrition

Inadequate intake of dietary energy with features of loss of body weight, muscle and fat

5

Name 10 clinical effects of malnutrition

Fatty liver change, functional decline, necrosis
Impaired wound healing
Impaired gut integrity and immunity
Anorexia
Loss of strength
Hypothermia
Poor renal function
Decreased cardiac output
Poor immune function
Depression and apathy

6

Why would someone have a poor intake?

• Age
• Apathy/depression
• Dementia
• Inability to buy/cook/consume food
• Inability to chew and swallow
• Limited mobility
• Sensory loss (taste/smell)
• Treatment (ventilation/surgery/drain tubes)
• Drug therapy (eg chemotherapy agents)

7

What would give someone increased nutritional requirements?

Burns, fever
Muscle gain
Intense exercise

8

What hospital factors may lead to malnutrition

• Failure to recognise malnutrition
• Lack of nutritional screening/assessment
• Lack of nutritional screening
• Failure to record height and weight
• Lack of staff to assist with feeding

9

What investigations should be done in someone with weight loss/malnutrition

Physical examination (muscle wasting/oedema due to hypoalbuminaemia/dry skin/hair loss)
Dietary history
Anthropometric measurements
Biochemical measurements
INR (for vitamin K levels), vitamin B12 and folic acid levels.

10

How is a MUST score calculated?

BMI (0=>20, 1=18.5-20, 2=<18.5)
Unexplained weight loss in past 3-6 months (5%=0, 5-10%=1, >10%=2)
Acutely ill/likely no nutritional intake for >5 days = 2

11

What counts as high risk for malnutrition?

>2

12

What does MUST stand for?

Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool

13

How can energy intake be increased?

Fortifying energy content of ordinary food (add cream to mashed potatoes)
Sip feeds (fortisip) and other supplements
Enteral nutrition (PEG/NG)

14

What does PEG stand for?

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

15

How is a PEG inserted?

Use endoscope to enter stomach
Press on abdomen to show place of needle
Gastric button is kept in with balloon