Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (15)
Severe body weight, fat, muscle loss and increased protein catabolism due to underlying disease(s)
Degenerative loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing
Inadequate consumption of macro or micronutrients to meet the metabolic demands of the body (under/over nutrition)
Inadequate intake of dietary energy with features of loss of body weight, muscle and fat
Name 10 clinical effects of malnutrition
Fatty liver change, functional decline, necrosis
Impaired wound healing
Impaired gut integrity and immunity
Loss of strength
Poor renal function
Decreased cardiac output
Poor immune function
Depression and apathy
Why would someone have a poor intake?
• Inability to buy/cook/consume food
• Inability to chew and swallow
• Limited mobility
• Sensory loss (taste/smell)
• Treatment (ventilation/surgery/drain tubes)
• Drug therapy (eg chemotherapy agents)
What would give someone increased nutritional requirements?
What hospital factors may lead to malnutrition
• Failure to recognise malnutrition
• Lack of nutritional screening/assessment
• Lack of nutritional screening
• Failure to record height and weight
• Lack of staff to assist with feeding
What investigations should be done in someone with weight loss/malnutrition
Physical examination (muscle wasting/oedema due to hypoalbuminaemia/dry skin/hair loss)
INR (for vitamin K levels), vitamin B12 and folic acid levels.
How is a MUST score calculated?
BMI (0=>20, 1=18.5-20, 2=<18.5)
Unexplained weight loss in past 3-6 months (5%=0, 5-10%=1, >10%=2)
Acutely ill/likely no nutritional intake for >5 days = 2
What counts as high risk for malnutrition?
What does MUST stand for?
Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool
How can energy intake be increased?
Fortifying energy content of ordinary food (add cream to mashed potatoes)
Sip feeds (fortisip) and other supplements
Enteral nutrition (PEG/NG)
What does PEG stand for?
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy