What level is obesity general recognised as in small animals?
20-25% above ideal body weight
Why is there an increased risk with anaesthesia with obesity in small animals?
More difficult to monitor patientsAirway issues
What is obesity associated with in cats?
Hepatic lipidosis with illness leading to anorexiaDevelopment of diabetes mellitus (3.7x increase)Urethral obstruction
What is obesity associated with in dogs?
Risk for pancreatitisWorsening manifestation of degenerative orthopaedic disorders
How does obesity complicate respiratory diseases?
Increases upper airway resistance and decreases functional residual lung capacity
How does obesity complicate neurological disease?
Physiotherapy more difficult
How does obesity complicate orthopaedic diseases?
Excessive stress on arthritic jointsDecreased mobilityHigher post-operative complications
What are non-client related contributing factors to obesity in small animals?
Primary underlying cause causing imbalance between intake and expenditureExcessive intakeLack of exerciseMetabolic statusGeneticsLife-style
What are the client-related factors that contribute to obesity in small animals?
Feeding practices and schedulesAd libitum feedingMultiple pets in householdSmall childrenMultiple members of family feeding
Which dog breeds are predisposed to obesity?
Labrador RetrieversGolden RetrieversShetland SheepdogsCocker SpanielsChihuahuaBasset HoundsPugsDachshundsMiniature Schnauzers
Why can neutering pets lead to obesity if owner not educated?
Reproductive status impacts energy requirements and owners do not mostly change amount fed post-neutering
Why does feeding need to be adjusted with age in small animals?
Aging causes loss of lean body massEnergy requirements related to lean body massIf intake not adjusted then obesity occurs
What needs to be incorporated into every physical assessment of an animal during a physical assessment?
Body condition score
How can you ensure a weight loss programme is successful?
Educate clientClient gives full commitmentRegimen individualised to needs of patient and clientEffective and consistent communicationEstablish good rapport with clients
What are some good ways to create a successful weight loss programmes?
Meal-fed rather than ad libitumAll meals carefully measuredTake full diet history with entire familyKeep a log of everything fed for 1 weekAdd some exercise into plan
What must be done when designing a nutritional plan for small animals?
Calculate exactly what the patient needs and figure how much is actually fed normally
What are the resting energy requirements for for a small animal?
70(current body weight)0.7530(body weight)+70
What are the maintenance energy requirments for cats and dogs?
Cats: neutered - RERx1.2, entire - RERx1.4, active - RERx1.6Dogs: neutered - RERx1.6, entire - RERx1.8, active - RERx2 to 8
Which animals should you never start weight loss programmes for?
What energy requirements should we start with in at risk animals?
Maintenance energy requirements
What energy requirements should we formulate diet plans to with already obese animals?
Resting energy requirements
Why can reducing the normal amount of food not be a viable option for a weight loss plan?
May reduce other nutrientsAmounts may be so small that clients will feel guilty and not comply
What should the target weight loss be no more than in a regimen?
2% of body weight per week
What should be considered with high protein diets?
The impact of the diet on other systems
How can cats be tempted to exercise?
Play time with toys - 10 minutes of high activityFood placed in toys requiring strenuous activity (should take place of regular meals)
Describe the follow up for weight loss plans in small animals
Maintain good rapport and constant communicationSet up for several visits and many phone callsMake use of reminder post carsIndividualised reports for motivation
What are the most serious nutritional imbalances in small animals?
Calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D
When are small animals most vulnerable to imbalances?
Describe nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
Diets deficient in calcium, vit. D or with excessive phosphorous result in increased PTHManifests as severe osteopenia and hypocalcaemiaClinically see pathologic fractures, muscle twitching and seizures
What are the consequences of excess calcium in a small animal diet?
OsteochondrosisPanosteitisRadius curvus syndromeWobbler syndrome
What are the consequences of excess vitamin D in a small animal diet?
OsteochondrosisRadius Curvus syndrome
What are the consequences of excess calcium and phosphorous in a small animal diet?
OsteochondrosisRadius Curvus syndrome
What are the consequences of calcium deficiency in a small animal diet?
What are the consequences of vitamin D deficiency in a small animal diet?
RicketsBowed legsPathological fractures
What are the consequences of protein deficiency in growing dogs?
What are the consequences of taurine deficiency in cats?
Dilated cardiomyopathyRetinal degeneration
What are the consequences of thiamine deficency in small animals?
What is the most common nutritional disorder that occurs in companion animals?
What are the three steps to effectively managing obese patients?
1 - Recognition of obsesity and establishing client commitment2 - Development of a program that meets the needs of the pet and the owner3 - Communication and follow-up with the client
What are the three components that should be included in any weight loss programme for small animals?
Dietary modificationExercise regimeBehaviour modification