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Flashcards in Micro Summary: Diseases Deck (90):
1

Bacteriodes: Bacilus, Prevotella, Porphoryngeus

B. fragilis, P. bivia, P. melaninogenica, P. gingivalis, Abscess, Bacteremia

2

Histotoxic Clostridia: C. perfringens, C. septicum

Wound (gas, anaerobic cellulitis, simple), organ, septicemia, food poisoining

3

C. tetani

Tetanus (CNS, spastic paralysis)

4

C. botulism

Flaccid paralysis, CN dysfunction, double vision, swallowing difficulties, flaccid paralysis, breathing problems, constipation (infants), classical foodborne botulism: contaminated foods, intoxication, infant botulism: most common form of botulism in US, GI tract colonized, infection, adult infant botulism: GI tract colonized, disrupt normal flroa, toxin production, wound botulism: toxin grows in wound, class A select agent: bioterrorism, biowarfare

5

C. difficile

Hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea

6

Campylobacter jejuni

Acute gastroenteritis

7

Haemophilus influenzae

Children: otitis media/sinusitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, meningitis/bacteremia; Adults: otitis media, sinusitis, LRT

8

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Persistent cough + erythema multiforme + anemia, thrombotic purpura

9

Escherichia coli

UTIs, neonatal/childhood meningitis

10

Salmonella

Diarrhea (gastroenteritis), enteric fever (typhoid fever)

11

Shigella

Dysentery, GI Symptoms of shigellosis vary from mild diarrhea (no blood) to dysentery (low volume, bloody stool). Shigellosis is usually considered a disease of the colon; it may also involve the ileum? S. sonnei infections usually mildest; S. dysenteriae and S. flexneri more severe

12

Klebsiella

Bloodstream infection, nosocomial pneumonia and urinary tract infection

13

Yersinia pestis

Plague, diarrhea, lymphadenitis, Bubonic: most common, fevers, chills, weakness, headache, painful swollen lymph nodes, Pneumonic: infection of lungs, fever, cough, difficulty breathing, bloody sputum, Septicemic: generalized (bloodstream)

14

Chlamydia trachomatis

Serovars A-K: trachoma, cervicitis, PID, etc., Serovars L1-L3: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), Chlamydophila pneumonia: bronchitis & pneumonia, Chlamydophila psittaci: zoonotic, pneumonia (psittacosis)

15

Treponema pallidum

Syphilis

16

Rickettsia rickettsii

"Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Rash localized to extremities, Fever, malaise, severe frontal headache, myalgia and vomiting, Abdominal pain, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, mental confusion, meningitis, respiratory difficulties, renal
dysfunction, and/or myocarditis, Lysis of endothelial cells leads to endothelitis"

17

Borrelia burgdorferi

Lyme Disease: Early: bull's eye expanding rash, malaise, fatigue, headache, fever, chills, myalgia, Early-Disseminated: cranial neuropathy, meningitis, radiculoneuropathy, iritis, encrotizing retinis, cardiac dysfunction, Late: oligoarthritis, dermatologic syndromes, neurologic demylination

18

Bacillus anthracis

Cutaneous (95%): exposure of abraded skin to spores, purpitic painless papule, black eschar, enlarged lymph nodes, Inhalational (5%): flu-like, mediastinal widening, hemorrhagic mediastinitis, hemorrhagic meningitis, GI (sporadic): uncooked meat, GI symptoms

19

Francisella tularensis

Tularemia: Ulceroglandular, Pharyngeal, Pneumonic, Oculoglandular, Typhoidal, Glandular

20

Helicobacter pylori

Mild GI inflammation (chronic gastritis), Duodenal or gastric ulcers due to inflammation (ammonia/urease, VacA, CagA), Gastric cancer or lymphoma

21

Enterococcus faecium

Bloodstream infection, endocarditis, UTIs

22

Staphylococcus aureus

Skin & soft tissue disease (*abscess, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, myositis, septic arthritis, impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, fasciitis), Disseminated disease (*toxic shock syndrome (intoxication), septicemia, endocarditis), Device infections (*central venous catheters, implanted devices, post-surgical infections), CA-MRSA (presence of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) gene), Superantigens (food poisoning)

23

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Nosocomial infections w/ IV lines or implanted foreign materials

24

Acinetobacter baumanii

Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP)

25

Neisseria meningitidis

Meningitis

26

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

M: acute urethritis, urethral dischare, dysuria, most resolve, F: asymptomatic or cervicitis, urethritis, PID (bilateral abdominal pain, tenderness fever), N: conjunctivitis

27

Streptococcus pyogenes

Bacteremia, pneumonia, bone & joint infections, meningitis, endocarditis, Mucosal infections: streptococcal pharyngitis,Pyogenic infections: necrotizing faciitis (attachment from M protein & LTA), Toxigenic: toxic shock syndrome, scarlet fever, Non-suppurative or immunologic: rheumatic fever (inadvertent autoimmunity molecular mimicry), poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (hematuria/Coca-cola urine, edema, hypertension)

28

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Respiratory Disease: upper (otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis) & lower (CA-pneumonia, death), Disseminated: bacteremia, meningitis, bacterial peritonitis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis

29

Listeria monocytogenes

Meningitis in babies, bacteremia or meningitis in immunocompromised

30

Legionella pneumophila

Legionnaires' disease & Pontiac fever, cough, fever, diarrhea

31

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Shock, cystic fibrosis, burn infections, catheters (UTIs), & IV lines

32

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis: cough, fever, difficulty breathing

33

Mycobacterium leprae

Leprosy

34

Corynebacterium diphtheria

C. diphtheriae cells remain on the mucosal epithelium (not invasive), some are absorbed & enter circulation to damage internal organs, causing death

35

Vibrio cholera

"fluid/electrolyte loss & diarrhea, severe cholera: diarrheal fluid has a pale yellow/brown color with flecks of small
white mucous material (""rice water stool""), poor skin turgor, sunken eyes, vomiting, dehydration, cardiac problems, shock, coma, & death"

36

Bordetella pertussis

tracheitis and bronchitis, with accumulation of mucus, cells, and bacteria in the airways; mucociliary elevator is impaired; hemorrhages & vomiting

37

Candida albicans

Thrush, esophagus infections, vulvovaginitis
Bloodstream infections

38

Cryptococcus neoformans & gattii

Meningitis, meningoencephalitis, bloodstream infections

39

Dermatophytes

Zoophilic: tinea corporis (ring worm), Geophilic, Anthropophilic (tinea pedis (athletes foot), tinea cruris (jock itch), onychomycosis (nail))

40

Pneumocystis jiroveci

PJP (in immunocompromised)

41

Aspergillus fumigatus & niger

Respiratory tract, airway colonization, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), tracheobronchitis, sinusitis, aspergilloma, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, disseminated aspergillosis

42

Zygomycoses: mucor, absidia, rhizopus, rhizomucor

Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in pts w/ metabolic disorders (diabetes) & free iron rich states

43

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis: non-healing, inflamaed cutaneous nodule that doesn't respond to antibacteirals w/ lymphatic spread

44

Dematiaceous

Fungal meningitis

45

Fusarium

Hematological malignancies & bone marrow transplants

46

Scedosporium

Infection in immunocompetent

47

Histoplasma capsulatum

Flu-like respiratory tract infection, mediastinal granuloma, fibrosis, chronic/cavitary pulmonary histoplasmosis, disseminated histoplasmosis

48

Coccidiodes immitis

Peripheral eosinophilia, erythema nodosum, dissemination to CNS, bones, joints, & skin

49

Blastomyces dermatidis

Chronic, granulomatous & suppurative lesions in lungs, dissemination to skin & bones

50

Entamoeba histolytica

Bloody diarrhea & liver abscess

51

Acanthamoeba

In contact lens wearers

52

Naegleria fowleri

Brain-eating amoeba causing meningo-encephalitis

53

Giardia lamblia

Diarrhea, gastroenteritis

54

Cryptosporidium

Prolonged diarrhea

55

Microsporidium

Diarrhea in immunocompromised

56

Trichomonas vaginalis

Tricomoniasis, Vaginitis, Cervicitis (STI): vaginal discharge, frothy, fish-like odor

57

Plasmodium falciparum

Malaria: microvascular disease, hypoglycemia, cerebral malaria, renal failure, pulmonary edema, anemia, multiorgan failure, coma

58

Plasmodium vivax & ovale

Malaria

59

Babesia

Babesiosis & anema

60

Leishmania

Cutaneous (skin ulcers, soldiers in Iraq or Afghanistan), Visceral (Kala azar, fevers, hepatosplenomegaly)

61

Trypanosoma

American (Chagas, esophageal & colon dysmotility, cardiomyopathy) / African (sleeping sickness, meningo-encephalitis)

62

Toxoplasma gondii

Chorioretinitis, Lymphadenopathy, Brain abscesses, Immunocompromised patient: toxoplasma encephalitis (neurological symptoms) & ocular toxoplasmosis (congenital), Congenital toxoplasmosis: results in serious, chorioretinitis, CNS disease

63

Ascaris lumbricoides

Anemia

64

Hookworm (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale)

Cutaneous larva migrans

65

Pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis)

Anal itch

66

Strongyloides stercoralis

Hyperinfection syndrome, disseminated

67

Whipworm (trichuris trichiura)

Anemia

68

Onchocerca, Wuchereria, Brugia

Filiariasis, river blindness (onchocerciasis) & elephantiasis

69

Trichinella

Trichinellosis / trichinosis, myalgias, & eosinophilia

70

Schistosoma hepatobium, japonicum, & mansoni

Acute schistosomiasis (Katayama fever), Chronic schistosomiasis (liver disease, bladder cancer)

71

Taenia solium

Neurocysteicercosis: most critical location in brain, causes seizures

72

Echinococcus granulosus

Hydatid disease & liver cysts

73

HIV

Oral Candidiasis (Thrush), HSV-1 or HSV-2, VZV, MAC, PJP, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, PML, ctyptococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

74

HCV

Chronic viral infection, Chronic hepatitis, Cryoglobulinemia, Cirrhosis then hepatocellular carcinoma

75

HSV

HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV, EBV, HHV6, HHV7, KSHV

76

HPV

skin warts, anogenital warts, laryngeal wrats, oral pappilomatosis, cervical cancer, oropharyngeal cancer

77

VZV

Fever headaches, malaise preceding a exanthematous rash; rash begins on the face, scalp or trunk, and the vesicular lesions are very itchy, usually self-limiting, Herpes zoster (shingles): lesions are clustered & dermatomal, painful

78

West Nile Virus

Encephalitis

79

Norovirus

Self-limited gastro-enteritis

80

Rotavirus

Acute gastroenteritis

81

Adenovirus

Epidemic pneumonia + probable viral source

82

Hantavirus

Fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, diarrhea, Death from pulmonary edema (respiratory failure) & renal shutdown

83

Rabies

Rabies: Abnormal sensation at bite site, Confusion, lethargy, paresis, increased salivation, irrational aggressive actions, Hydrophobia, seizures, paralysis, coma, encephalitis, death

84

Smallpox

Variola major/minor: Centrifungal rash, Lesions of same age, Contagious after rash appears

85

VHFs

Fever, severe illness, petechiae, unexplained bleeding, shock

86

EBV

Acute: Asymptomatic or mononucleosis, Fever, pharyngitis, lympahdenopathy, atypical lymphocytosis, Complication: hepatitis rash (from amoxicillin or penicillin) or beta-lactam splenic rupture; Chronic: Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, non-Hodgkin's or Hodgkin's lymphomas, Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD)

87

Influenza

Fever, cough, chills, headache, myalgia, malaise, anorexia

88

Mumps

Acute viral infection with swelling and tenderness of the parotid and salivary glands, fever, malaise, headache, involvement of parotid and salivary glands (benign)

89

Measles

Malaise, fever, runny nose, respiratory symptoms (cough) precede the rash, Rash: begins on face, proceeds down body, with extremities last. Erythematous and maculopapular

90

Rubella

Subclinical infection, rash develops in symptomatic individuals, Infection in early gestation very dangerous, can lead to fetal death, premature delivery and congenital defects, such as deafness, myopia, heart disease, mental retardation