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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (41):
1

what are the 4 different ecology of bacteria?

-free living
-commensal
-mutualistic
-parasitic

2

what do the following terms mean:
1)sporatic
2)endemic
3)epidemic
4)pandemic

1- tiny bit here and there
2- present all the time
3-large no. appears in population
4. spreads over all places, 2 or more continents

3

name 4 gram +ve organisims within the mouth

-streptococci spp.
-staphylococci spp.
-actinomyces spp.
-lactobacilli

4

what bacteria is the leading cause in tooth decay?

streptococcus mutans

5

what is strepotooccus sanguinis often related to?

Infective endocarditis

6

sometimes prophylaxis was given to heart pts before dental treatment to reduce the risk of infective endocartditis. Is prophylaxis still given to reduce the risk of enfective endocartitis?

No. It is no longer recommended by NICE guidelines

7

what is the 2nd most important group of bacteria involved in dental caries?

lactobacilli

8

what is special about lactobacilli?

lactobacilli is aciduric and acidogenic

9

actinomyces is historically associated with what?

root caries

10

what diseases does actinomyces mediate?

abcesses and dentoalveolar infections

11

what gram +ve bacteria mediates caries and where?
eg. S. mutans=enamel caries

-s.mutans=enamel caries
-lactobacilli=dentinal caries
-actinomyces=root surface caries

12

what are the 4 main groups of gram -ve bacteria in the mouth?

-cocci
-strict anaerobes
-facultative anaerobes
-curved rods

13

where are gram -ve bacteria often found and why?

In the gingival crevice due to anaerobic conditions

14

what colour are prevotella and porphyromonas?

dark/purple pigmented bacteria?

15

what does BspA do in tanerella forsythia?

induces bone reabsorbing pro-inflammmatory cytokines

16

what bacteria are associated with localised aggressive periodontitis?

actinobacilli actinomycetemcomintans

17

what are the principle bacteria involved with NUG?

-Treponema vincentii&denticoli
-fusobacterium nucleatum
-prevotella intermedia
-porphyromonas gingivalis`
-spirochaete complex

18

what is in the acquired salivary pellicle?

mucins, salivary glycoproteins, minerals and immunoglobulins

19

what is the fimbriae (pili)?

hair like projections, allow for bacteria to adhere to enamel

20

what is subgingival plaque influenced by?

influenced by gingival fluid

21

how do viruses enter the host?

-respiratory tract
-GI tract
-urogenitary tract
-blood

22

what is superficial candidosis?

thrush

23

erythematous candidosis

denture wearing or prolonged drug therapy

24

what are antifungal drugs?

antimitotics

25

what is meant by beacteriostatic?

inhibit growth of bacteria

26

what is meant by bacteriocidal?

kill bacteria

27

what does tetracycline inhibit?

protein synthesis

28

where do antibiotics target?

-cell wall, ribosome, DNA replication, DNA gyrases, metabolic pathways, cell membrane function

29

does metronidazole have an effect when taken with alcohol?

YES

30

what are the 4 types of vaccines?

-toxoid
-subunit
-inactivated
-live-attenuated

31

what is meant by herd immunity?

the level of disease resistance of a community or population

32

what bacteria are associated with chronic periodontitis?

-fusobacterium nucleatum
-porphyromonas gingivalis
-spirochates

33

what bacteria are involved with rapidly progressive periodontitis?

-porphyromonas gingivalis
-prevotella intermedia
-fusobacterium nucleatum

34

what bacteria are in the red complex?

-porphyromonas gingivalis
-tannerella forsythia
-treponema denticola

35

what bacteria are in the orange complex?

-fusobacterium nucleatum
-prevotella intermedia

36

what are the two types of natural immunity?

-active
-passive

37

give an example of natural active immunity

-natural recovery from infection

38

give an example of natural passive immunity

-maternal antibodies

39

what are the two different types of artificial immunity?

-active
-passive

40

give an example of artificial active immunity

vaccination

41

give an example of artificial passive immunity

immunisation