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Flashcards in perio seminars Deck (44):
1

what are 4 factors required for caries?

-dental plaque
-carbohydrate
-time
-susceptible tooth

2

what is the main organism involved with caries?

s.mutans

3

what are the 3 main epidemiological surveys used in caries?

1.national diet and nutritional survey
2.scottish health boards dental epidemiological programme
3.adult dental health survey

4

what does the NDIP stand for?

national dental inspection programme

5

what is another word for rampant caries?

nursing bottle caries

6

what is the cause of periradicular periodontitis?

toxins spread through the rot apex

7

what is an abscess?

an abscess is a localised accumulation of pus cause by an infection

8

what is cellulitis?

cellulitis is the swelling of soft tissue of mouth and face from a diffuse spread of infection and inflammation along facial planes

9

what is ludwig angina?

-a progression of severe cellulitis
-involves the FOM
-causes difficulty in swallowing

10

what does NME sugar stand for?

non-milk extrinsic sugars

11

give an example of an NME?

sucrose

12

what is the most cariogenic sugar?

sucrose then followed by glucose and fructose

13

where are intrinsic sugars found?

found in fruit and veg

14

what are the main sources of sugars in the diet?

-nme's
-sweets and sugary drinks

15

what are the two types of non-sugar sweeteners?

-intense
bulk

16

what would be some dietary advice to prevent caries?

-tb 2 x daily with flouride tp
-spit dont rinse
-pea sized amount of toothpaste
decrease frequency and amount of NME sugars

17

caries is most prevelant in what kind of families?

low socio-economic status families

18

what is the aetiology of xerostomia?

-medication
-radiation
-salivary gland surgery
-related to systemic diseases

19

what are some clinical signs of xerostomia?

-dry, glosyy atrophic mucosa
-fungal or bacterial mucosal infections
angular chelitis
-caries
-difficulty swallowing/chewing

20

what is the tx of xerostomia?

-change medication
-saliva substitute
-flouride supplements
-excellent OH

21

what is seen as 'low risk caries'

-regular attender
-fit and healthy
-socially advantaged
-lives in flouridated area
-low sugar diet
-good oh

22

what is seen as 'moderate risk caries'?

-non flouridated are
-oh fair
-white spot lesions
-2 small restoration

23

what is seen as 'high caries risk'?

-poor attender
-special needs
-socially disadvantaged
-non-flouridated area

24

what does DIFOTI stand for?

digital imaging fibre optic transillumination

25

what is DIAGNOdent?

-laser flourescence
-tooth structure flouresces when irradiated by a laser light of specific wavelength

26

what are the 2 systems of digital imaging?

-cordless
-corded

27

what organism do carious vaccines target?

s.mutans

28

what is the mode of action of flouride?

1. having an effect on enamel structure
2. alteration in tooth morphology
3. action on bacterial plaque

29

in what 2 ways does flouride make the enamel apatite crystals less soluble?

1. becomes incorporated as flourapatite which is less soluble
2.flouride displaces carbon and magnesium ions from apatite crystals

30

in what 3 ways does flouride have an effect on enamel remineralization after acid attack?

1. flouride releases more soluble carbonate of enamel
2.acid attack= release of flouride ions from enamel surface into saliva. favouring remineralisation
3.flouride accumulates in early carious lesions at concentrations high enough to reduce solubility

31

how does flouride alter the shape of teeth?

-wider fissures
-more rounded cusps
-enamel and dentine thinner

32

what is a gingival abscess?

-abscess confined to the gingivae

33

what is gingival abscess associated with?

-trauma

34

what is a periodontal abscess?

-formation of puss in periodontal tissues
-localised area of inflammation
-endogenous pyogenic micro-organisms
-possible toxic features in plaque

35

what are some examples of/features of a periodontal abscess?

-a consequence of pulp disease
-painful
-tooth may be mobile, red, swollen
-supuration
-often associated with a deep pocket

36

when might a perio-endo lesion occur?

-apical abscess has spread laterally
-creates a periodontal lesion or unites with a pre-existing lateral lesion
-when a perio lesion extends close to the tooth apex
-pulp infection has spread via accesory canals into the periodontal tissues

37

what are the 2 types of occlusal trauma?

1.primary occlusal trauma
2.secondary occlusal trauma

38

what is primary occlusal trauma?

-tissue damage caused by applying excessive occlusal loads to a previously healthy periodontium
(eg. ortho tx)

39

what is secondary occlusal trauma?

-tissue dmage caused by normal functional stress applied to an impaired periodontium

40

what are some systemic risk factors?
(GEBLTMH)

-genetic
-enviromental
-behavioural
-lifestyle
-metabloic
-harmatological

41

what are the stages of behavioural change?

-precontemplation
-contemplation
-preperation
-action
-maintenance
-termination

42

what are the 5 A's?

-ask
-advise
-assess
-assist
-arrange

43

what are the 5 R's?

-relevance
-risk
-reward
-roadblock
-repetition

44

what is sarcoidosis?

-a granulomatous condition of uncertain aetiology
-gingiva may have hyperplastic, granulomatous appearance with superficial ulceration