Flashcards in perio seminars Deck (44):
what are 4 factors required for caries?
what is the main organism involved with caries?
what are the 3 main epidemiological surveys used in caries?
1.national diet and nutritional survey
2.scottish health boards dental epidemiological programme
3.adult dental health survey
what does the NDIP stand for?
national dental inspection programme
what is another word for rampant caries?
nursing bottle caries
what is the cause of periradicular periodontitis?
toxins spread through the rot apex
what is an abscess?
an abscess is a localised accumulation of pus cause by an infection
what is cellulitis?
cellulitis is the swelling of soft tissue of mouth and face from a diffuse spread of infection and inflammation along facial planes
what is ludwig angina?
-a progression of severe cellulitis
-involves the FOM
-causes difficulty in swallowing
what does NME sugar stand for?
non-milk extrinsic sugars
give an example of an NME?
what is the most cariogenic sugar?
sucrose then followed by glucose and fructose
where are intrinsic sugars found?
found in fruit and veg
what are the main sources of sugars in the diet?
-sweets and sugary drinks
what are the two types of non-sugar sweeteners?
what would be some dietary advice to prevent caries?
-tb 2 x daily with flouride tp
-spit dont rinse
-pea sized amount of toothpaste
decrease frequency and amount of NME sugars
caries is most prevelant in what kind of families?
low socio-economic status families
what is the aetiology of xerostomia?
-salivary gland surgery
-related to systemic diseases
what are some clinical signs of xerostomia?
-dry, glosyy atrophic mucosa
-fungal or bacterial mucosal infections
what is the tx of xerostomia?
what is seen as 'low risk caries'
-fit and healthy
-lives in flouridated area
-low sugar diet
what is seen as 'moderate risk caries'?
-non flouridated are
-white spot lesions
-2 small restoration
what is seen as 'high caries risk'?
what does DIFOTI stand for?
digital imaging fibre optic transillumination
what is DIAGNOdent?
-tooth structure flouresces when irradiated by a laser light of specific wavelength
what are the 2 systems of digital imaging?
what organism do carious vaccines target?
what is the mode of action of flouride?
1. having an effect on enamel structure
2. alteration in tooth morphology
3. action on bacterial plaque
in what 2 ways does flouride make the enamel apatite crystals less soluble?
1. becomes incorporated as flourapatite which is less soluble
2.flouride displaces carbon and magnesium ions from apatite crystals
in what 3 ways does flouride have an effect on enamel remineralization after acid attack?
1. flouride releases more soluble carbonate of enamel
2.acid attack= release of flouride ions from enamel surface into saliva. favouring remineralisation
3.flouride accumulates in early carious lesions at concentrations high enough to reduce solubility
how does flouride alter the shape of teeth?
-more rounded cusps
-enamel and dentine thinner
what is a gingival abscess?
-abscess confined to the gingivae
what is gingival abscess associated with?
what is a periodontal abscess?
-formation of puss in periodontal tissues
-localised area of inflammation
-endogenous pyogenic micro-organisms
-possible toxic features in plaque
what are some examples of/features of a periodontal abscess?
-a consequence of pulp disease
-tooth may be mobile, red, swollen
-often associated with a deep pocket
when might a perio-endo lesion occur?
-apical abscess has spread laterally
-creates a periodontal lesion or unites with a pre-existing lateral lesion
-when a perio lesion extends close to the tooth apex
-pulp infection has spread via accesory canals into the periodontal tissues
what are the 2 types of occlusal trauma?
1.primary occlusal trauma
2.secondary occlusal trauma
what is primary occlusal trauma?
-tissue damage caused by applying excessive occlusal loads to a previously healthy periodontium
(eg. ortho tx)
what is secondary occlusal trauma?
-tissue dmage caused by normal functional stress applied to an impaired periodontium
what are some systemic risk factors?
what are the stages of behavioural change?
what are the 5 A's?
what are the 5 R's?