Flashcards in Microbiology chapter 2 Deck (24)
Archaea, Bacteria, Eucarya
inculde the Archaea and bacteria
DNA or RNA and depend on host for energy and proteins, They rely on host for everything since they are metabolically inert
name some eukaryotes
fungi, protozoa, and humans
name some prokaryotes
bacteria, Their genome is in a single circular molecule of double stranded DNA lacking a nuclear membrane
different shapes of microbials
cocci, bacilli, spirochaetes
when multiple shapes are taken
purple stain, more susceptible to penicillins
made from flagellin. Monotrichous is a single flagella, lophotrichous is many flagella. Spirochaetes have a similar structure called axial filament
fimbriae and pili
mainly on gram negative orgs. Made from subunits called pilin and mediate adhesion to receptors on human cell surface
glycocalyx ( slime layer)
helps bacteria adhere to surfaces like the oral mucosa and heart valves and contribute to biofilms. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic organism that has a major glycocalyx that makes a lot of glycocalyx in the presence of sugar.
surrounds bacterium and has polysaccharides and proteins. It mediates adhesion to human tissue and implants, It hinders phagocytosis, it helps with laboratory identification, and its polysaccharides are used as antigens in certain vaccines because they elicit protective antibodies.
inner layer of cell wall
made of peptidoglycan
which stain has morepeptidoglycan?
cell wall of gram negative
complex outer membrane of LPS ( lypopolysacharides), lipoprotein, and phospholipid. These form porins through which hydrophilic molecules are transported through
where do you find the periplasmic spance?
between inner and outer layer of gram negative bacteria. This is where enzymes are produced that destroy drugs such as penicillins
What is LPS considered to be?
a very toxic endotoxin
functions of cytoplasmic membrane functions
active transport and selective diffusion, ETC and oxidative phosphorylation, synthesis of cell wall precursors, secretion of enzymes and toxins
nuclear material or nucleoid
single supercoiled circular chromosome that has about 2000 genes
from Bacillus and Clostridium. They have a thick keratin like coat which has a high concentration of calcium dipicolinate which is resistant to heat, dehydration, and radiation and chemicals
autoclave test spore type
uses morphology , staining properties, cultural requirements, biochemical reactions , antigenic structure