Microbiology chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbiology chapter 2 Deck (24):
1

Domains

Archaea, Bacteria, Eucarya

2

Prokaryotes

inculde the Archaea and bacteria

3

Viruses

DNA or RNA and depend on host for energy and proteins, They rely on host for everything since they are metabolically inert

4

name some eukaryotes

fungi, protozoa, and humans

5

name some prokaryotes

bacteria, Their genome is in a single circular molecule of double stranded DNA lacking a nuclear membrane

6

different shapes of microbials

cocci, bacilli, spirochaetes

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pleomorphic

when multiple shapes are taken

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gram positive

purple stain, more susceptible to penicillins

9

gram negative

pink

10

flagella

made from flagellin. Monotrichous is a single flagella, lophotrichous is many flagella. Spirochaetes have a similar structure called axial filament

11

fimbriae and pili

mainly on gram negative orgs. Made from subunits called pilin and mediate adhesion to receptors on human cell surface

12

glycocalyx ( slime layer)

helps bacteria adhere to surfaces like the oral mucosa and heart valves and contribute to biofilms. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic organism that has a major glycocalyx that makes a lot of glycocalyx in the presence of sugar.

13

Capsule

surrounds bacterium and has polysaccharides and proteins. It mediates adhesion to human tissue and implants, It hinders phagocytosis, it helps with laboratory identification, and its polysaccharides are used as antigens in certain vaccines because they elicit protective antibodies.

14

inner layer of cell wall

made of peptidoglycan

15

which stain has morepeptidoglycan?

gram positive

16

cell wall of gram negative

complex outer membrane of LPS ( lypopolysacharides), lipoprotein, and phospholipid. These form porins through which hydrophilic molecules are transported through

17

where do you find the periplasmic spance?

between inner and outer layer of gram negative bacteria. This is where enzymes are produced that destroy drugs such as penicillins

18

What is LPS considered to be?

a very toxic endotoxin

19

functions of cytoplasmic membrane functions

active transport and selective diffusion, ETC and oxidative phosphorylation, synthesis of cell wall precursors, secretion of enzymes and toxins

20

nuclear material or nucleoid

single supercoiled circular chromosome that has about 2000 genes

21

bacterial spores

from Bacillus and Clostridium. They have a thick keratin like coat which has a high concentration of calcium dipicolinate which is resistant to heat, dehydration, and radiation and chemicals

22

autoclave test spore type

bacillus stearothermophilus

23

classifying bacteria

uses morphology , staining properties, cultural requirements, biochemical reactions , antigenic structure

24

Taxonomy for bacteria

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species