chapter 23, heart valves and heart sounds, valvular and congenital defects Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 23, heart valves and heart sounds, valvular and congenital defects Deck (32)
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duration of first and second heart sound

first- .14, second-.11


third heart sound

heard at the beginning of the middle third of diastole ( it may be the oscillation of blood back and forth between the walls of the ventricles initiated by inrushing blood from the atria)


4th heart sound

when atria contract which causes the inrush of blood into the ventrilces.



listening to sounds with stethascope



microphone specially designed to detect low frequency sounds


what causes the greatest number of valvular lesion?

rheumatic fever ( from streptococci A)


why does rheumatic fever affect the left heart valves more?

the high-pressure stresses that act on them


what is a stenoses

valves with leaflets adhering to each other and blood cannot flow through them properly



when valve edges are destroyed and dont close all the way. ( backflow)


Systolic murmur of aortic stenosis

blood pressure rises in the left ventricle as much as 300 mm Hg. This creates a nozzle effect during systole which causes severe turbulance from the ventricle into the aorta. The sound vibrations can often be felt by the lower neck and upper chest. This is called a "thrill"


Diastolic murmur of aortic regurgitation

this results a turbulence of blood rushing back into the ventricle during diastole


systolic murmur of mitral regurgitation

blood flows back into the left atrium during systole.


name the pneumonic for the detecting wich valve is effected

all people try meat. ( going from right to left)


diastolic murmur of mitral stenosis

during the first 1/3 no murmur may be heard since there is not enought blood in the ventricle to really make any noise. After partial filling the ventricle has enough blood to produce low rumbling murmurs


which murmurs are loudest and quietest?

loudest is aortic stenotic lesions, quietist are mitral stenotic lesions


which murmurs occur only during systole?

aortic stenosis, and mitral regurgitation


which murmurs occur only during dyastole?

aortic regurgitation and mitral stenosis


how is the net stroke volume reduced in regards to murmurs?

aortic stenosis doesnt allow the ventricles to completely empty, Aortic regurgitation allows what was pumped to go back to the ventricle


what does aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation do to the left ventricle?

causes hypertrophy


since there is less stroke volume the body the arterial pressue does this



with a decrease in arterial pressure, the body does what to elevate the pressure?

slows down renal output causing the blood to increase and returning the pressure back to normal


how does an increase in atrial pressure cause atrial fibrillation?

the stretched atria increase the distance the electrical impulses have to travel. This eventually can cause fibrillation


name 1 abnormal circulatory dynamic in congenital heart defects

stenosis of the channel of blood flow at some point in the heart or in a closely allied major blood vessel


name 1 abnormal circulatory dynamic in congenital heart defects

a left to right shunt, failing to pass to the systemic circulation ( blood going the wrong direction)


name 1 abnormal circulatory dynamic in congenital heart defects

a right to left shunt failing to pass through the lungs


name a left to right shunt

patent ductus arteriosus ( a left to right shunt)


what affects does the patent ductus arteriosus cause?

decreased cardiac reserve, and respiratory reserve


what was one of the first successful heart surgeries?

closing the patent ductus arteriosus


Whats a tetrology of fallot?

most common cause of blue baby. This condition causes 4 conditions simultaneously and causes a right to left shunt


name the 4 conditions in tetrology of fallot

1. Aorta originates from right venticle /or there is a hole in the ventricular septum. 2. pulmonary artery is stenosed( most of the blood passes through the hole in the septum and goes through the aorta. 3. blood flows either through the septal hole into the right ventricle and into the aorta( if the aorta is switched) or it mixes with the blood and goes through the aorta. 4. right ventricle hypertrophies because of the high pressure from the stenosis.