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Flashcards in microbiology of ENT infections Deck (34):
1

what do you do to diagnose an infection in throat and phyranx?

take a throat swab

2

what is the most common cause of a sore throat?

viral

3

most common bacterial cause of sore throat?

strep.pyogenes

4

describe strep. pyogenes?

gram positive cocci in chains, B-haemolysis

5

what do you treat with if its a strep.pypgenes sore throat?

oral penicillin or clarthromycin if allergic

6

what are the acute complications of a bacterial sore throat?

quinsy
sinusitis
otitis media
scarlet fever

7

what are the late complications of a bacterial sore throat?

rheumatic fever
glomerulonephritis

8

what bug causes diphtheria?

corynebacterium diphtheria

9

what does the diphtheria organism produce?

an extotoxin which is cardiotoxic and neurotoxic

10

severe sore throat with grey white membrane of phyarnx?

diphtheria

11

how to treat diphtheria?

anti toxin and penicillin/erthrymycin

12

white patches on red raw mucous

candida/thrush

13

how to treat oral thrush?

nystatin suspension topically

14

what is otitis media?

inflammation of middle ear

15

what commonly causes infections of middle ear?

often viral with secondary bacterial infection

80% resolve in 4 days without antibiotics

16

most common bacterial causes of middle ear infection?

H.influenzae
strep.pneumoniae
strep.pyogenes

17

what is acute sinusitis ?

inflammation of frontal/maxillary sinuses due to congestion

18

signs/symptoms for acute sinusitis

sever pain and tenderness
purulent nasal discharge -seocndarybacteria infection

19

if complicated sinusitis how do you treat it?

1st line- penicllin
2nd line- doxycyline(but not in children)

20

what is otitis externa?

inflammation of external ear canal

21

bacterial causes of otitis externa?

staph.aureus
prtoeus spp
pseudomonas aeruginosa

22

fungal causes of otitis externa?

aspergillus niger
candida albicans

23

if pseudomonas infection of outer ear how do you treat it?

topical gentamicin

24

if fungal infection of outer ear how do you treat it?

clotrimazole

25

what virus causes infectious mononucleosis?

Epstein Barr viris (EBV)- in herpes family

26

"glandular fever"
fever
enlarged lymph nodes
sore throat
tonsilitis/pharyngitis
malaise lethargy
rash
jaundice/hepatits
splenomegaly

infectious mononucleosis

27

complications of infectious mononucleosis?

anaemia
thrombocytopenia
splenic rupture
increased risk of lymphoma
upper airway obstruction

28

what causes cold sore?

herpes simplex virus

29

what is herpetic whitlow?

occupational hazard of dentistry and anaesthetics--wear gloves!!

30

what type of herpes simplex virus causes oral lesions?

type 1

31

vesicles/ulcers on soft palate?

herpangia

32

what virus causes herpangia?

an enterovirus

33

what causes hand foot and mouth disease

enterovirus

34

recurring painful ulcers of mouth that are round or orval shaped and have inflammatory halos

confined to mouth
no systemic disease

apthous ulcers