Physiology of taste and smell Flashcards Preview

ENT > Physiology of taste and smell > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiology of taste and smell Deck (29):
1

what is gustation?

physiology of taste

2

what are the organs of taste?

taste buds

3

where are most of the sensory receptors for taste?

in taste buds on tongue

4

2 types of cell in taste bud?

receptor cells and support cells

5

life span of taste receptor cells

10 days

6

where are taste buds present?

tongue, palate, pharynx, epiglottis

7

which papillae have taste buds?

fungiform
foliate
vallate

8

which papillae doesnt have taste buds?

filiform

9

what happens when a taste chemical binds to a receptor?

the cell ionic channels are altered and produce a depolarising receptor potential

10

what does the receptor potential do?

initiate action potentials in afferent nerve fibres

11

what do the afferent taste fibres reach the brainstem via?

chorda tympani branch of facial nerve (anter 2/3rd tongue)

glossopharyngeal (posterior 1/3rd tongue)

vagus( areas other than tongue)

12

what are the 5 primary senses of taste?

salty
sour
sweet
bitter
umami

13

what is ageusia?

loss of taste function

can be caused by nerve damage, local inflammation and endocrine disorders

14

what is Hypogeusia?

reduced taste function

caused by chemo and medication

15

what is dysgeusia?

distortion of taste

caused by glossitis, gum infection, reflux, tooth decay, chemo URTI

16

what is olfaction?

physiology of smell

17

3 types of cell in oral mucosa?

olfactory receptor cells
supporting cells
basal cells

18

which cells have specialised nerve endings of renewable afferent neurones

olfactory receptor cells

19

what is special about each of the renewable afferernt neurones?

they have a thick short dendrite at and expanded end called an olfactory rod. and from these rods, cilia project to the surface of olfactory mucosa

20

life span of olfactory receptors?

2 months

21

what acts as precursors for new olfactory receptor cells?

basal cells

22

what collectively makes the olfactory nerve?

axons of many olfactory receptors

23

what do the axons of the olfactory receptors pierce to enter the olfactory bulbs?

cribiform plate

24

what do the olfactory bulbs do?

transmit smell to brain

25

to be smelled a substance must be..?

volatile and water soluble

26

what is anosmia?

inability to smell

caused by viral infection, head trauma, nasal polyp

27

what is hyposmia

reduced ability to smell

28

what might hyposmia be a an early sign of?

parkinsons

29

what is dysosmia?

altered sense of smell