Flashcards in Micronutrients Deck (28):
What are the water soluble vitamins?
What are the characteristics of water soluble vitamins?
Not easily stored in the body
Often lost from food during cooking
Limited toxic effects as not stored
Why do we need vitamins?
They are involved in energy metabolism
What are the fat soluble vitamins?
What are the characteristics of fat soluble vitamins?
Stored in the body and pose a risk of toxicity
Less likely to be lost from food during cooking
Stored in liver
how could exercise contribute to decreased vitamin needs?
Increased energy turnover
What is the best way to measure vitamins in the body?
Blood - doesnt show storage
Diet analysis - best way
Should use a couple sources and symptoms
what are the mechanisms of DOMS?
Mechanical - unaccustomed contractions can cause ultrastructural damage to contractile tissue
Metabolic - reduced ATP synthesis, ischemia, hypoxia, accumulation of by products, inhibited excitation contraction coupling etc
What does oxidative stress do?
Exercise alters blood perfusion and increases oxidative phosphorylation temp and lactic acid which all result in oxidative stress.
ROS cause damage to polyunsaturated FAs, proteins and DNA
What does muscle damage result in?
Impaired muscular function
Reduced range of motion
Inhibited glycogen repletion
What are antioxidants?
Substances that reduce the severity of oxidative stress through
Preventing free radical formation
Scavenging existing free radicals
Assisting in the repair of oxidative damage
What are some antioxidant supplements?
Does antioxidant supplementation reduce oxidative stress?
Yes and increases recovery. more so when a mixture of antioxidants are taken instead of just one.
What kind of foods can you find beta carotine in?
carrots, green leafy veges, sweet potatoes, squash, apricots, mangoes
What kinds of foods can you find vitamin E in?
vegetable oils, wheat germ, whole grains, beans, green leafy veges
In what conditions should athletes take additional supplements?
What are macro minerals?
Found in the body in quantities higher than 5g
Required in quantities more than 100g each day
What are micro minerals?
found int the body in quantities less than 5g. Required in quantities of 1mg-100mg per day
What is bioavailability?
The amount available in the body for biological use. Depends on absorption
What can effect the absorption of minerals?
Fibre can decrease absorption of calcium zinc and iron.
minerals bind to tannins etc and are excreted in the faces/urine
What are examples of macro minerals?
What are examples of micronutrients?
most abundant mineral in the body (1.5-2% body mass)
Combined with phosphorus is used in bones
The ionised form is also used in
Transmisson of nerve impulses
activation of enzymes
Fluid movement across plasma membranes
Vitamin D is required for the absorption of calcium
RDA around 1000mg
What is sport (pseudo) anaemia?
On average athletes have slightly lower haemoglobin levels than normal. Its due to the dilution of haemoglobin by increased plasma levels.
What are the possible causes of anaemia?
GI bleeding (20% of runners)
combines with Ca to provide rigidity to bones etc
Essential component of ATP
key role in DNA
Involved in buffering acids
Deficiencies are rare
60% in skeletal muscle
formation of glycogen
Breakdown of glucose/AAs/FAs
Conduction of nerve impulses/contraction
Function of hormones
Synthesis of protein
absorption can be depressed by increased calcium