Micronutrients Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micronutrients Deck (28):
1

What are the water soluble vitamins?

B 1,2,3,6&12
Biotin
Panthathenic acid
Folic acid
C

2

What are the characteristics of water soluble vitamins?

Not easily stored in the body
Often lost from food during cooking
Limited toxic effects as not stored

3

Why do we need vitamins?

They are involved in energy metabolism

4

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A,D,E,K

5

What are the characteristics of fat soluble vitamins?

Stored in the body and pose a risk of toxicity
Less likely to be lost from food during cooking
Stored in liver

6

how could exercise contribute to decreased vitamin needs?

Increased energy turnover

7

What is the best way to measure vitamins in the body?

Biopsy
Blood - doesnt show storage
Diet analysis - best way

Should use a couple sources and symptoms

8

what are the mechanisms of DOMS?

Mechanical - unaccustomed contractions can cause ultrastructural damage to contractile tissue

Metabolic - reduced ATP synthesis, ischemia, hypoxia, accumulation of by products, inhibited excitation contraction coupling etc

9

What does oxidative stress do?

Exercise alters blood perfusion and increases oxidative phosphorylation temp and lactic acid which all result in oxidative stress.
ROS cause damage to polyunsaturated FAs, proteins and DNA

10

What does muscle damage result in?

DOMS
Impaired muscular function
Reduced range of motion
Inhibited glycogen repletion

11

What are antioxidants?

Substances that reduce the severity of oxidative stress through
Preventing free radical formation
Scavenging existing free radicals
Assisting in the repair of oxidative damage

12

What are some antioxidant supplements?

Vitamin E
Vitamin C
beta-carotine

13

Does antioxidant supplementation reduce oxidative stress?

Yes and increases recovery. more so when a mixture of antioxidants are taken instead of just one.

14

What kind of foods can you find beta carotine in?

carrots, green leafy veges, sweet potatoes, squash, apricots, mangoes

15

What kinds of foods can you find vitamin E in?

vegetable oils, wheat germ, whole grains, beans, green leafy veges

16

In what conditions should athletes take additional supplements?

Travelling
Losing weight
Stress

17

What are macro minerals?

Found in the body in quantities higher than 5g
Required in quantities more than 100g each day

18

What are micro minerals?

found int the body in quantities less than 5g. Required in quantities of 1mg-100mg per day

19

What is bioavailability?

The amount available in the body for biological use. Depends on absorption

20

What can effect the absorption of minerals?

Fibre can decrease absorption of calcium zinc and iron.
minerals bind to tannins etc and are excreted in the faces/urine
Prescription drugs

21

What are examples of macro minerals?

Calcium
Iron
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Sodium

22

What are examples of micronutrients?

Chromium
Copper
Manganese
Selenium
Sulphur
Zinc

23

Calcium

most abundant mineral in the body (1.5-2% body mass)

Combined with phosphorus is used in bones
The ionised form is also used in
Muscle contraction
Transmisson of nerve impulses
activation of enzymes
Blood clotting
Fluid movement across plasma membranes

Vitamin D is required for the absorption of calcium
RDA around 1000mg

24

What is sport (pseudo) anaemia?

On average athletes have slightly lower haemoglobin levels than normal. Its due to the dilution of haemoglobin by increased plasma levels.

25

What are the possible causes of anaemia?

GI bleeding (20% of runners)
Sweat

26

Phosphorus

combines with Ca to provide rigidity to bones etc
Essential component of ATP
key role in DNA
Involved in buffering acids
Deficiencies are rare

27

Magnesium

-25kg
60% in skeletal muscle
formation of glycogen
Breakdown of glucose/AAs/FAs
Conduction of nerve impulses/contraction
Function of hormones
Synthesis of protein

absorption can be depressed by increased calcium

28

Sodium

0.5g/day
average consumption is 4-5g/day which is 2.5g/day over recommended limit