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Flashcards in Micronutrients Deck (84)
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1

How many essential vitamins are there?

13

2

These facilitate biochemical reactions

Coenzymes

3

These do not provide energy but are needed for the metabolism of energy

Vitamins

4

What quantities should you take vitamins in

Microgram or milligram

5

In large doses, vitamins can act like ___

drugs

6

what are vitamins susceptible to

destruction

7

What are the functions of vitamin A

- helps w/ vision
- keeps mucus membranes moist
- maintains healthy skin and hair

8

How much vitamin A can the body store

A year supply

9

What is the RDA of vitamin A

men: 900 micrograms
Women: 700 micrograms

10

What can you expect if you are deficient in Vitamin A

- deduced night vision/night blindness
- skin disorders
- keratomalacia-corneal blindness
- decreased saliva production
- impaired immune system functioning

11

What are the toxicity symptoms of Vitamin A

- Hepatosplenomegaly
- Jaundice
- Teratogen

12

What are the two forms of vitamin A and where do you find them

1. preformed---animal sources
2. carotenoids---fruits and vegetable sources

13

What are the two forms of vitamin D

1. D2: ergocalciferol
2. D3: cholecalciferol

14

functions of vitamin D

- maintain normal blood concentrations of calcium and phosphorus
- w/out cannot absorb calcium & phosphorus

15

symptoms of deficiency in vitamin D

- rickets
- osteomalacia
- involuntary muscle twitching

16

toxicity symptoms of vitamin D

- Fatigue
-muscle weakness
- kidney stones
- constipation

17

sources of vitamin D

eggs, dairy products, fortified foods, sunlight, mushrooms

18

functions of vitamin E

* primary fat-soluble antioxidant in the body
* enhances immune system functioning
* deficiency and toxicity is rare
* stops the destruction of cells

19

RDA of vitamin E

15 mg daily

20

RDA of vitamin D

70 and under: 600 IU
70 and over: 800 IU

21

sources of vitamin E

nuts, oils, dark leafy vegetables, avocado

22

functions of vitamin K

- used in the synthesis of prothrombin and clotting factors
-treatment for warfarin overdose

23

2 forms of vitamin K and where are they found

1. phylloquinone---plants
2. menaquinones---synthesized in the intestinal tract by bacteria

24

effects of deficiency in vitamin K

- hemorrhaging
- increased bleeding time

25

effects of toxicity in vitamin K

no adverse effects

26

how should you take vitamin K if you are on blood thinners

consistently

27

sources of vitamin K

- broccoli
- squash
- peppers
- tomatoes
- olive oil
- kale

28

functions of thiamin/B1

- carbohydrate metabolism
- promotes appetite/NS functioning

29

effects of a deficiency in thiamin

beriberi (common in chronic alcohol use)

30

sources of thiamin

- liver
- nuts
- pork
- dried beans
- whole or enriched grains