Flashcards in Midterm #1 Deck (266)
What is nutrition?
science that studies all the interactions that occur between living organisms and food
What are nutrients?
chemical substances in foods that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes
What gives us access to previously/quickly prepared foods with little effort?
processed foods and fast foods
When did processed foods/fast foods arise?
How do processed/fast foods differ in nutritional value from other foods?
higher in calories, lower in other nutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants); makes it easier to overeat because they're so available
What is the focus of nutrition advice in modern America?
controlling intake, just as much as ensuring adequate intake
unit of heat used to express the amount of energy provided by foods; heat required to raise temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree C (1 kcal = 4.18 J)
how many joules per kcal?
4.18 kjoules = 1 kcal
needed in large amounts; water, carbs, protein, lipids
needed in small amounts; vitamins and minerals
What are lipids?
organic, energy-yielding, macronutrient, NOT water-soluble; fatty acids/triglycerides/cholesterol
What are proteins?
organic, energy-yielding, macronutrient, water-soluble, made of amino acids
What are vitamins?
organic, not energy yielding, micronutrients, some water-soluble, some fat-soluble
What are minerals?
inorganic, not energy-yielding, micronutrients, water-soluble
What is undernutrition?
malnutrition: deficiency of energy and/or nutrients
What is overnutrition?
malnutrition: excess energy and/or nutrients
How does overnutrition differ for energy vs vitamins/minerals?
energy: obesity, chronic illness (diabetes, etc.); vit/min = organ damage and/or death
What is malnutrition?
any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal for a period of time
How does someone get overnutrition of energy but undernutrition of vitamins/minerals?
by eating a diet high in processed foods: lots of energy but low in vitamins/minerals
How do genetics influence nutrition?
can influence predisposition to diseases like diabetes/cancer; diet an increase risk or decrease if healthful
What effect can diet have on genetic predispositions to disease?
if unhealthy, can exacerbate; if healthy, can alleviate
What is nutritional genomics?
new field of study exploring interaction between genetic variation and nutrition
What field of study explores the interaction between genetic variation and nutrition?
What determines food choices?
availability, cultural and family background, prior experience, social acceptability, personal preference, psychological/emotional state, health concerns, taste, cost nutrition, convenience
What are the main determinants for what we eat?
taste, cost, nutrition, convenience
How can we choose a healthy diet?
identify and choose nutrient dense foods; varied diet; balance choices and use moderation, be aware of portion sizes
What is a nutrient dense food?
contains more nutrients per calorie
Why can nutrition science seem contradictory?
because science takes a whole: study designs/interpretation/media effects may differ from study to study
What is the scientific method?
systematic, unbiased approach to evaluating the relationships among food, nutrients, and health