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Flashcards in Midterm #1 Deck (266)
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1

What is nutrition?

science that studies all the interactions that occur between living organisms and food

2

What are nutrients?

chemical substances in foods that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes

3

What gives us access to previously/quickly prepared foods with little effort?

processed foods and fast foods

4

When did processed foods/fast foods arise?

21st century

5

How do processed/fast foods differ in nutritional value from other foods?

higher in calories, lower in other nutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants); makes it easier to overeat because they're so available

6

What is the focus of nutrition advice in modern America?

controlling intake, just as much as ensuring adequate intake

7

kilocalorie

unit of heat used to express the amount of energy provided by foods; heat required to raise temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree C (1 kcal = 4.18 J)

8

how many joules per kcal?

4.18 kjoules = 1 kcal

9

macronutrient

needed in large amounts; water, carbs, protein, lipids

10

micronutrient

needed in small amounts; vitamins and minerals

11

What are lipids?

organic, energy-yielding, macronutrient, NOT water-soluble; fatty acids/triglycerides/cholesterol

12

What are proteins?

organic, energy-yielding, macronutrient, water-soluble, made of amino acids

13

What are vitamins?

organic, not energy yielding, micronutrients, some water-soluble, some fat-soluble

14

What are minerals?

inorganic, not energy-yielding, micronutrients, water-soluble

15

What is undernutrition?

malnutrition: deficiency of energy and/or nutrients

16

What is overnutrition?

malnutrition: excess energy and/or nutrients

17

How does overnutrition differ for energy vs vitamins/minerals?

energy: obesity, chronic illness (diabetes, etc.); vit/min = organ damage and/or death

18

What is malnutrition?

any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal for a period of time

19

How does someone get overnutrition of energy but undernutrition of vitamins/minerals?

by eating a diet high in processed foods: lots of energy but low in vitamins/minerals

20

How do genetics influence nutrition?

can influence predisposition to diseases like diabetes/cancer; diet an increase risk or decrease if healthful

21

What effect can diet have on genetic predispositions to disease?

if unhealthy, can exacerbate; if healthy, can alleviate

22

What is nutritional genomics?

new field of study exploring interaction between genetic variation and nutrition

23

What field of study explores the interaction between genetic variation and nutrition?

nutritional genomics

24

What determines food choices?

availability, cultural and family background, prior experience, social acceptability, personal preference, psychological/emotional state, health concerns, taste, cost nutrition, convenience

25

What are the main determinants for what we eat?

taste, cost, nutrition, convenience

26

How can we choose a healthy diet?

identify and choose nutrient dense foods; varied diet; balance choices and use moderation, be aware of portion sizes

27

What is a nutrient dense food?

contains more nutrients per calorie

28

Why can nutrition science seem contradictory?

because science takes a whole: study designs/interpretation/media effects may differ from study to study

29

What is the scientific method?

systematic, unbiased approach to evaluating the relationships among food, nutrients, and health

30

What are the steps to the scientific method?

PIHERC (problem, info, hypothesis, experiment, results, conclusion, revise)