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What is psychology?

The study of mental behaviours and processes


What are the 4 goals of psychology? Curious George examples?

Describe - DESCRIBE an image of Curious George
Explain - WHY does Curious George like the yellow hat?
Predict - WHEN will Curious George put the hat on?
Control - bring desired outcomes (ex. putting Curious George in prison)


What are the levels our thoughts are influenced by?

Brain - neuronal activity, structure
Person - content of mental processes (ex. intelligence, personality)
Group - social environment/culture


What did Hippocrates contribute to psychology?

suggested physicla and psychological health is determined by 4 bodily fluids, recognized importance of good food/fresh air/rest, identified the brain as the organ of mental life as opposed to the heart


What did Socrates/Plato contribute to psychology?

concluded that the mind and body are distinct and that knowledge is innate, or existing from the time of birth


What did Aristotle contribute to psychology?

one of the first to promote empirical/testable investigations of the world


What did Francis Bacon contribute to psychology?

creator of empiricism (that knowledges originates in experience), mind is distinct from the body


What did John Locke contribute to psychology?

tabula rasa - the mind is a blank slate at birth, acquire all knowledge through experience


What did Johannes Muller contribute to psychology?

researchers need to study relationship between physical stimuli and their psychological effects


What did Herman van Helmholtz contribute to psychology?

first to measure the speed of a nerve impulse and discovered that they occur over time not instantaneously, thought and movement are linked but not the same


What did Gustav Fechner contribute to psychology?

founder of experimental psychology, discovered evidence of the relationship between physical and mental events - moves psychology closer to quantified science


What did Charles Darwin contribute to psychology?

theory of evolution (all life on Earth originated from common ancestral point), natural selection (chance variations are adaptive and beneficial so they thrive and reproduce)


What did Wilhelm Wundt contribute to psychology?

opened 1st psych lab, studied consciousness and the idea of will, developed voluntarism and introspection


What is voluntarism?

the theory that much of human behaviour is motivated and that attention is focused for a purpose


What did Edward Titchener contribute to psychology?

formed structuralism


What is structuralism?

studies the structure of the conscious experience, looking at the individual parts


What is introspection?

"looking inward", careful evaluation of mental processes and the expansions of simple thoughts into ideas through self-observation/reflection


What are the flaws of structuralism?

failed to incorporate animals and abnormal behaviour


What did William James contribute to psychology?



What is functionalism?

considers how mental process function to adapt to change


What is Gesalt Psychology?

"the whole is grater than the sum of its parts", studied illusions and errors in perception


What are the scientific principles?

1. the universe operates according to certain laws
2. these laws are discoverable and testable


What is deductive reasoning?

reasoning proceeding from broad principles narrowing down to specific situations (theory - predictions - observation/experiment)


What is inductive reasoning?

reasoning starting from specific situations broadening to general truths (observation/experiment - predictions - theory)


What is hypothetico-deductive reasoning?

process of modern science, starts with an educated guess and then designing observations to support/invalidate hypothesis (hypothesis - observation/experiment - support/invalidate: theory)


What is a theory?

an idea about a law that governs phenomena


What is a hypothesis?

general statement about the way variables relate that is objectively falsifiable


What is a primary difference between pseudo-psychology and psychology?

psychology does not claim to address all human issues


What does operationalize mean?

to develop a working definition of a variable that allows you to test it


What is random selection?

identifying a sample in a way that everyone in the population of interest has an equal chance of being in the study