Flashcards in Midterm #2 Deck (126)
What is neuroscience?
the study of the brain and the nervous system
What were the 4 methods that human neuroscience relied on several decades ago?
examining autopsy tissue, testing the behaviour of patients with damage to certain parts of their brain, recording brain activity through electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp, animal studies
What is neuroimaging?
techniques that allow for studying brain activity and structure by obtaining visual images in awake humans
What is an EEG?
electrodes attached to scalp, output is brain waves, measures electrical activity in the brain
What is a CT Scan?
x-ray type images that may require dye, take lots of images and layer them to create cross section, measures brain structure
What is a MRI?
uses magnets and scans, builds 2D or 3D image, very clear image, measures brain structure
What is a PET Scan?
small dose of radioactive substance injected that emits positrons, different colours on scan indicate tissues, measures brain function
What is an fMRI?
uses magnets, measures activity in the brain based on amount of oxygen in the blood, displays function and structure
What is learning?
process by which experience produces a lasting change in behaviour, something you didn't do before but now did, observable
What is Behaviourism?
focus on how organisms learn and the processes by which experience influences behaviour
treated organism as tabula rasa, explained learning in terms of directly observable events
What is Classical Conditioning? What can it also be called?
aka Pavlovian or Respondent
learning based on association of 2 stimuli
premise - some things we encounter in the world naturally elicit a response in us
What is an example of Classical Conditioning?
UCS - meat powder
UCR - salivation
after repeated pairings of meat powder with the neutral stimulus of the scientist, the dog eventually began to salivate at the sight of the scientist
CS - scientist
CR - salivation
What are the 4 key components in Classical Conditioning?
unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR), conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioned response (CR)
What did Pavlov's study discover?
studied dog's salivary responses, notice dogs salivate at sounds (ex. footsteps or tone) without prior learning
What are the phases of Classical Conditioning?
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery
Explain the acquisition phase of Classical Conditioning.
results from repeated USC-CS pairings
optimal learning occurs when there is a short delay between unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus are presented
(ex. tone presented first but still present while food is presented)
Explain the extinction phase of Classical Conditioning.
inhibits responding but does not erase by reducing or removing learned behaviours
CS is presented in absence of UCS, CR weakens
Explain the spontaneous recovery phase of Classical Conditioning.
after a rest period and without any new learning trials, the reappearance of previously extinguished CR
What is Generalization?
when stimuli similar to the initial CS elicit a CR
What is Discrimination?
when the CR occurs after only one stimulus but not another
What is Operant Conditioning? What can it also be called?
aka Skinnerian or Instrumental
learning as a result of consequences that follow
emit a behaviour (operate on the environment) and then associate this behaviour with a positive/negative outcome
Explain Thorndike's Law of Effect.
response followed by a satisfying consequence becomes more likely to occur
response followed by an unsatisfying consequence is less likely to occur
What is the difference between a reinforcer and a punisher?
reinforcer - increases likelihood of a behaviour
punisher - suppresses behaviour
Describe primary and secondary positive reinforcers.
primary - stimuli that has survival value so is intrinsically rewarding (ex. food)
secondary - neutral stimulus that becomes rewarding when associated with primary reinforcer
Describe reinforcement and punishment from both a positive and negative approach.
positive reinforcement - adding to environment, increasing behaviour (ex. candy, smile)
negative reinforcement - removing from environment, increasing behaviour (ex. buzzer, pain)
positive punishment - adding to environment, decreasing behaviour (ex. slap, shout)
negative punishment - removing from environment, decreasing behaviour (ex. time out)
What is Chaining?
reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response, develops a sequence of behaviours
What variables increase effectiveness of training?
- continuous: every response of a particular type are reinforced
- partial: only some responses reinforced
- ratio: certain % of responses reinforced
- interval: certain amounts of time must elapse between reinforcement
- fixed: reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses or fixed time interval
- variable: reinforcement occurs after an average number of responses or passage of time
What are some applications of operant training?
specialized animal training, education/workplace, token economies
What is Social Learning?
learning through observation of others