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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (62):
1

What is space

an area on the earths surface of any size.

2

when we look at something with spatial perspective it means..

we are observing variations in some geography phenomena or activity across space

3

a space often has

unclear or undefined boundaries which mean different things to different people

4

what is location

geographic situation or position of people and things

5

true or false: a location can precisely be determined?

true

6

locations help to establish the

context within which events and processes are situated

7

what are the two meanings of scale?

1. the territorial or spatial extent of something
2. distance on a map

8

describe the first meaning of scale

- what happens at the global scale can affect the local scale and vice versa and every level in-between

9

what is large scale?

large scale, large detail. You would measure a classroom or something very detailed on the map.

10

what are the three main types of maps?

1. reference map
2. thematic map
3. mental (concept) map

11

describe reference map

- focus on the accuracy showing the absolute locations of places, using a coordinated system that allows for the precise plotting of where something is on earth

12

describe thematic map

- tell stories of narratives showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomena
1. Eg. Peter Gould, the slow plague

13

describe mental map

-  are maps in our minds. They can be of places we have been or locations and places we have merely imagined.

14

examples of geomatic technology

- remote sensing
- gis
-gps

15

four types of projections

1. cylindrical
2. conic
3. planar
4. interrupted

16

describe cylindrical projections

- paper that is wrapper around the world
- most accurate where the paper touches
- bad for the poles (if the paper is around the equator)
- europeans invented this because they wanted to explore the area around the equator

17

who invented the first cylindrical projection and when

mercator in 1569

18

who improved mercator map and when

robinson 1963

19

describe conic projections

- like putting a cone over the globe
- for where the most people live - in NH
- europeans wanted better mapping for the north
- not accurate for the equator

20

describe planar projections

- best for mapping the poles
- developed for the poles
- shows how close together the continents are

21

describe interrupted

-scale of land masses are completely accurate
- good for mapping lands
- bad for oceans

22

describe John Snows map

- map of cholera in the UK in 1854
- was the queens doctor
-made a map between cholera cases and water pumps
- took the handle off the pumps and cholera stopped

23

details of early haida gwaii map

- first mapped by George Dixon and was not very detailed
- not detailed because he wanted to claim that land even though people were already living there

24

social geography

- has a lot to do with identity
- asking key geographic questions about social factors and social phenomena

25

identity

- partly defined by yourself, partly by others
- We construct our own identities thorough experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections

26

types of social idenities

- race
-religion
-sexuality
-gender
-ethnicity
-class
-language
-age groupings

27

what is intersectionality

- people have multiple identities which can change in different contexts
intersecting identities

28

relationship between place and identity

people associate places with their identity which gives places meanings

29

difference between location, space, and place

people are prepared to defend places because they're tired in with their identity

30

what is placelessness

people can feel this when they lost a place that is important to them or when human landscapes appear similar or become indistinguishable

31

definition of a city

a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics

32

definition of an urban area

the entire build up, non-rural area and its population, including the space of the central city and suburbs

33

what is urbanization

the process of how cities change and grow over time

34

what does it mean to be urbanized

 the relative proportion of  people living in urban areas tells us how urbanized the country is

35

suburb

a subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. ,many are functionally uniform

36

what is the CBD

central business district - is in the heart of downtown

37

what is a zone

- piece of the city that has a specific use
- an area of a city with a relatively uniform land use or function such as industrial zone or a residential zone

38

central city

- urban area that is not suburban
- generally older or original city surrounded by suburbs

39

two meanings for residential neighbourhoods

1. 1920s clarence perry designed neighbourhoods to be safe for children
2. a cultural concept - people living in a community in a particular place. they create meaning

40

urban morphology

the study of physical form and structure of urban places

41

3 models of north american cities

1. concentric zones (Burgess)
2. sector model (hoyt)
3. multiple nuclei model (Ullman and Harris)

42

describe the concentric zone model

- Ernest burgess
-from his study in chicago in the 1920s
- divides the city into 5 zones by function
1. CBD
2. transition zone - residential deterioration and encroachment by businesses
3. blue collar - lower class workers
4. transition zone - buffer of working class
5. commuters and the suburbs

43

describe sector model

- homer hoyt in 1939
- the city grows outward
- lower class live next to trains thats go all night
- middle class as buffers
- higher class live farther away near parks and green spaces

44

describe multiple nuclei model

Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman in 1945
- based on the motorcar
-suburbs developed CBDs of their own because CBD was losing dominance as the nuclei
- people want to live in suburbs
- lower class where the work is

45

latin american model

- ernest griffin and larry ford 1980
-developed model to describe latin american cities
- vibrant CBD
- disammentites sector outside of city where the poorer people live
- rich people live downtown - opposite from other models
- zone of in city accretion - things are going up

46

south east asian model

TG Magee 1967
- model entered on the port zone - shipping to europe
- government zone surrounded by high class residents, parks
- squatter cities - poorer people lived below

47

sub saharan africa model

- foul berg et al. 2012
- 3 CBDs
-townships coincide with race

48

what is urban sprawl

unrestricted growth of na houses, commercial places, and roads over a large piece of land
it is not necessarily planned

49

what is a mega city

population greater than 10 million

50

what is a mega urban region

population of 1 million or more within a continuous territory inhabited at urban levels of high residency density

51

what is commercialization

transformation of an area into an area with greater economic activity

52

what is gentrification

when people buy up and rehabilitate houses in a previous abandoned or rundown neighbourhood increasing the house value

53

what is new urbanism

creating walkable neighbourhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs. counters urban sprawl

54

what is urban hierarchy

when you line up cities by their population from largest to smallest

55

what is a primate city

it is when the first city is way bigger than the second

56

what is rank size rule

Chris taller said that the population size of a city in the urban hierarchy has a direct relationship to the population size of the largest city
- population of biggest city x 1/n of its rank

57

what is central place theory

- Christaller 1993
-Tried to explain how and where central places such as cities, towns, and villages, in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another

58

mega city vs. world city

- a mega city is a city that has over 10 million people
- a world city does not have a size but is more connected to the rest of the world than to their country

59

describe culture

- it is a set of shared belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a particular group of people

60

describe urban local culture

- a local culture enables a tight nit community to practice within a larger city

61

whats is cultural consumption

Turning cultural artifacts or traditions or values or arts into a commercial venture separate from the traditions from which they came and often without benefit to the communities whose culture is appropriated for this purpose

62

what are spaces of consumptin

areas of the city specifically designed to encourage people to consume goods and services often driven by fashion, current trends etc,