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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (62):

What is space

an area on the earths surface of any size.


when we look at something with spatial perspective it means..

we are observing variations in some geography phenomena or activity across space


a space often has

unclear or undefined boundaries which mean different things to different people


what is location

geographic situation or position of people and things


true or false: a location can precisely be determined?



locations help to establish the

context within which events and processes are situated


what are the two meanings of scale?

1. the territorial or spatial extent of something
2. distance on a map


describe the first meaning of scale

- what happens at the global scale can affect the local scale and vice versa and every level in-between


what is large scale?

large scale, large detail. You would measure a classroom or something very detailed on the map.


what are the three main types of maps?

1. reference map
2. thematic map
3. mental (concept) map


describe reference map

- focus on the accuracy showing the absolute locations of places, using a coordinated system that allows for the precise plotting of where something is on earth


describe thematic map

- tell stories of narratives showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomena
1. Eg. Peter Gould, the slow plague


describe mental map

-  are maps in our minds. They can be of places we have been or locations and places we have merely imagined.


examples of geomatic technology

- remote sensing
- gis


four types of projections

1. cylindrical
2. conic
3. planar
4. interrupted


describe cylindrical projections

- paper that is wrapper around the world
- most accurate where the paper touches
- bad for the poles (if the paper is around the equator)
- europeans invented this because they wanted to explore the area around the equator


who invented the first cylindrical projection and when

mercator in 1569


who improved mercator map and when

robinson 1963


describe conic projections

- like putting a cone over the globe
- for where the most people live - in NH
- europeans wanted better mapping for the north
- not accurate for the equator


describe planar projections

- best for mapping the poles
- developed for the poles
- shows how close together the continents are


describe interrupted

-scale of land masses are completely accurate
- good for mapping lands
- bad for oceans


describe John Snows map

- map of cholera in the UK in 1854
- was the queens doctor
-made a map between cholera cases and water pumps
- took the handle off the pumps and cholera stopped


details of early haida gwaii map

- first mapped by George Dixon and was not very detailed
- not detailed because he wanted to claim that land even though people were already living there


social geography

- has a lot to do with identity
- asking key geographic questions about social factors and social phenomena



- partly defined by yourself, partly by others
- We construct our own identities thorough experiences, emotions, connections, and rejections


types of social idenities

- race
-age groupings


what is intersectionality

- people have multiple identities which can change in different contexts
intersecting identities


relationship between place and identity

people associate places with their identity which gives places meanings


difference between location, space, and place

people are prepared to defend places because they're tired in with their identity


what is placelessness

people can feel this when they lost a place that is important to them or when human landscapes appear similar or become indistinguishable


definition of a city

a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics


definition of an urban area

the entire build up, non-rural area and its population, including the space of the central city and suburbs


what is urbanization

the process of how cities change and grow over time


what does it mean to be urbanized

 the relative proportion of  people living in urban areas tells us how urbanized the country is



a subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. ,many are functionally uniform


what is the CBD

central business district - is in the heart of downtown


what is a zone

- piece of the city that has a specific use
- an area of a city with a relatively uniform land use or function such as industrial zone or a residential zone


central city

- urban area that is not suburban
- generally older or original city surrounded by suburbs


two meanings for residential neighbourhoods

1. 1920s clarence perry designed neighbourhoods to be safe for children
2. a cultural concept - people living in a community in a particular place. they create meaning


urban morphology

the study of physical form and structure of urban places


3 models of north american cities

1. concentric zones (Burgess)
2. sector model (hoyt)
3. multiple nuclei model (Ullman and Harris)


describe the concentric zone model

- Ernest burgess
-from his study in chicago in the 1920s
- divides the city into 5 zones by function
1. CBD
2. transition zone - residential deterioration and encroachment by businesses
3. blue collar - lower class workers
4. transition zone - buffer of working class
5. commuters and the suburbs


describe sector model

- homer hoyt in 1939
- the city grows outward
- lower class live next to trains thats go all night
- middle class as buffers
- higher class live farther away near parks and green spaces


describe multiple nuclei model

Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman in 1945
- based on the motorcar
-suburbs developed CBDs of their own because CBD was losing dominance as the nuclei
- people want to live in suburbs
- lower class where the work is


latin american model

- ernest griffin and larry ford 1980
-developed model to describe latin american cities
- vibrant CBD
- disammentites sector outside of city where the poorer people live
- rich people live downtown - opposite from other models
- zone of in city accretion - things are going up


south east asian model

TG Magee 1967
- model entered on the port zone - shipping to europe
- government zone surrounded by high class residents, parks
- squatter cities - poorer people lived below


sub saharan africa model

- foul berg et al. 2012
- 3 CBDs
-townships coincide with race


what is urban sprawl

unrestricted growth of na houses, commercial places, and roads over a large piece of land
it is not necessarily planned


what is a mega city

population greater than 10 million


what is a mega urban region

population of 1 million or more within a continuous territory inhabited at urban levels of high residency density


what is commercialization

transformation of an area into an area with greater economic activity


what is gentrification

when people buy up and rehabilitate houses in a previous abandoned or rundown neighbourhood increasing the house value


what is new urbanism

creating walkable neighbourhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs. counters urban sprawl


what is urban hierarchy

when you line up cities by their population from largest to smallest


what is a primate city

it is when the first city is way bigger than the second


what is rank size rule

Chris taller said that the population size of a city in the urban hierarchy has a direct relationship to the population size of the largest city
- population of biggest city x 1/n of its rank


what is central place theory

- Christaller 1993
-Tried to explain how and where central places such as cities, towns, and villages, in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another


mega city vs. world city

- a mega city is a city that has over 10 million people
- a world city does not have a size but is more connected to the rest of the world than to their country


describe culture

- it is a set of shared belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a particular group of people


describe urban local culture

- a local culture enables a tight nit community to practice within a larger city


whats is cultural consumption

Turning cultural artifacts or traditions or values or arts into a commercial venture separate from the traditions from which they came and often without benefit to the communities whose culture is appropriated for this purpose


what are spaces of consumptin

areas of the city specifically designed to encourage people to consume goods and services often driven by fashion, current trends etc,