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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (62):

The Lord's preface to D&C

D&C 1 - Christ's words
---Describes primary causes of the apostasy
--every man walks "after their own way and after the image of their own God" - after the world
--do not hear the voice of the lord
--have strayed from his ordinances and broken the everlasting covenant

--Lord gives primary purpose of Restoration
--fulfill the words of the prophets (and give us comm.)
--weak things of the world come forth
--faith inc. in world and everlasting covenant established
--fulness of gospel proclaimed by the weak and simple


Chronological order:
-BOM comes forth
-1st temple dedicated
-priesthood is restored
-the first vision
-the law of consecration given
-location of Zion is identified

1. The first vision
----Moroni's visitation and then Joseph rec. plates
2. The priesthood restored
---send 1st missionaries
3. The BOM comes forth
4. Law of Consecration is given
5. Location of Zion identified
6. 1st temple dedicated
--liberty Jail revelations - war in Missouri - intro. full endowment - Martyrdom


Overview of church history (6)

1. Beginnings (1820-31)
2. Two church centers (31-39)
3. Nauvoo (39-46)
4. Church in the west (47-90)
5. Expansion (90 - 1950)
6. Worldwide church (50 - present)


1. Beginnings

New York (1820-31)

Key events
---1st vision
---translating BOM
---Priesthood restorations
---organization of church

Major section
D&C 39

membership - approx. 280


2. Two church centers

Ohio and Missouri (31-39)

Key events
---Missouri persecutions
---Zion's camp
---1st Pres. and 12 called
---dedicating Kirtland Temple

Major section
D&C 87 - revelation on war - at the time many disputes over slavery in south Carolina

membership - 18,000


3. Nauvoo


Key events
---Mission of 12 to Britain
---Relief Society founded
---Temple ordinances revealed
---Joseph and Hyrum Smith martyred

major section

membership - 34,000


4. Church in the west

1847 - 98

Key events
---Trek to Salt Lake valley (UT is part of U.S. by then)
---Colonization of Western U.S., Canada and Mexico
---4 temples dedication

major sections
1, 1 Official declaration

Membership - 270,000


5. Expansion

1899 - 1950

key events
---Gathering to diff. nations
---missionary work expanded
---welfare system established
---4 temples dedicated

church moves from the West and spreads East U.S.

section 1

membership - 1,100,000


6. The Worldwide church

1951 - present

Key events
---additional General authority Quorums called
---141 + temples dedicated
---2000 + stakes organized around world

1 official declaration

membership - 15,000,000 +


Dallin H. Oaks quote on learning by faith

"Some things can be learned only by faith. Our ultimate reliance must be on faith in the witness we have rec. from the HG"


BOM says "the end" at the end of book and it closes

but D&C is continuing and still not ended or complete


How do we know if something is an official teaching of the church?

Official or unofficial stmts. (ex. taking sacrament with right hand - Pres. Nelson)
--does Atonement redeem people on all the worlds God created? - OFFICIAL STMT - bc freq. discussed the infinite atonement


4 factors to evalutate if a teaching or doctrine is an "official" teaching

1. The current CORRELATED PUBLICATIONS of the church
----books, manuals, magazines published through church correlated presses (teacher manuals, bible dictionary, church magazine articles, JS papers, LDS.org topic essays)

2. the CUMULATIVE OFFICIAL TEACHINGS of general authorities/officers
---what is being taught collectively, cohesively and consistently by official church leaders (gen. conf., worldwide broadcasts, reg. confidence., seminars and trainings for leaders)

3. the UNITED VOICE of the current 1st Pres. and 12 apostles
---official pronouncements, proclamations and publications from current prophets, seers and revelatory (official proc., letters from 1st pres., official handbooks, books, documents, announcements with sig. of 1st pres. or 12)

4. the HARMONIZED scriptural canon
---repeatedly and consistently in canonized revelations and scripture writings of prophets (Bible, BOM, D&C, PGP)
---"formally accepted by church and members was standard works)


What are the fundamental principles of our religion?



canon questions

is book of mormon perfect or does it contain mistakes?
--Moroni apologized in Ether for mistakes of man

Temple words are not found in Canon but it is scripture - just like Family Proclamation

"if they do not square with the revelations, we need not accept them" - accepted the four standard works as measuring yardsticks to measure every man's doctrine


doctrinal outliers

doctrinal outliers exist - "no man hath seen God at any time" (1 John 4:!2)

"In bible read imp. declaration 'in mouth of 2 or 3 witnesses shall every word be established' - this assures God's children that divine doctrines are confirmed by more than one scriptural witness...scriptural witness authenticate each other" - Nelson


United voice

"When 1st pres. and 12 speak with a united voice, it is the voice of the Lord for that time" - Ballard
--when revelation is doctrine for entire church...comes to only 1st pres. and 12 - prophet can rec. revelation individually that becomes doctrine when it is sustained by united voice of the 1st pres. and 12

"true principles are taught FREQUENTLY and by MANY" - not hidden in an obscure paragraph on one talk - doctrine not diff. to find - Elder Anderson

not every stmt. made by a church leader constitutes doctrine - single stmt. by single leader although well-considered opinion, not officially binding for whole church - Christofferson


Is it correlated?


seminary study guide

BYU speeches

Books by apostles and prophets


Reliable historical sources

---Written or produced by a participant or observer of event
--if not is it a secondhand account by non-participant?

--Recoded at or relatively near time of events
--if not is it a later reminiscent recalled after a significant amt. of time?

--Personal agenda that may bias content is mitigated. Tone is factual, fair, balanced, candid
--why was it written? motive?
--or is tone one-sided, defensive?

--dates, facts, claims are consistent with same events/content
--compare account with other primary/secondary sources of same events - major similarities and diff? consistency?

--Stmts. based on relatively indisputable facts/knowledge and inference are drawn logically - avoid subjective opinions
--is it a stmt. of factual inference or subjective opinion?
--fact is based on relatively indisputable date
--inference is conclusion drawn from facts
--opinion is subjective judgement not based entirely on known facts or indisputable knowledge - more of personal viewpoint/outlook


Seeking knowledge - Ballard

--students need to learn doctrinal and historical context by study and faith accompanied by pure testimony so they can exp. a mature and lasting conversion - James did not say, "if any of you lack wisdom, let him ask Google!" - wise people do not rely on internet


LDS Newsroom - "approaching mormon doctrine"

--Most issues stem from doctrine - best understood within a broad context and analysis
---Not every statement by church leader constitutes doctrine - single statement is a personal, thought-out opinion, but not binding for entire church
---First Presidency and 12 apostles seek revelation to establish consistent doctrine - resides in the 4 "Standard works"
---Encouraged through modern revelation to focus on the family, actively participate in service, strive to find individual spiritual confirmation of truth
---Sometimes what is argued to be conflicting doctrine is really just a misunderstanding btwn diff. terminology btwn religions

"a prophet is a prophet only the he is acting as such" - story about Brigham Young


a pattern by study and faith

study of church history begins with a question in heart and mind
1. give place
---who is telling story - how and why? - can't make assumptions about past based on present ideas and values - don't judge

--hearing, reading, seeking to understand - evidence, ideas and meaning

--authenticity and reliability - author authority??
--context (historical - setting time - other events at time) (literary context - association with other words and sources) (textual, biographical context - story fit - author's 1st work? author's views change over time?)
--significances- did writing have impact, influence? cause new events?

---feast, reflect, create lessons - seek to know what, why how...not y/n/dates

5. reap the fruit
--ask good questions


scripture developing

1. church in west period - orson Pratt adds sections and verses and 26 new sections

2. expansion - lectures on faith removed an dadd official declaration 1

3. worldwide - 2013 minor cleanups and what we use today


what is scripture?

Lord defines it in D&C 68:4 - anytime someone speaks by the HG - means scripture...but is it canon??

canon - bible dictionary - word of greek origin meaning "a rod for testing straightness" - now used to authorize sacred books by true believers in Christ - revelation measured against sacred works
--patriarchal blessing and gen. conf. is scripture but not canon

Venn diagram
--with above definitions - but can be both


methods to get D&C

---Moroni, John Baptist Moses, Elijah, Elias, Michael, Raphael, Jesus Christ, several unnamed Angels
sections 2, 13, 27, 110

---Urim and Thummim
(3, 6-7, 11, 14-17)

--76, 137, 138


--family, Christ (134, 135, OD 1 and 2)
--"a declaration of belief..."

--20, 102, 121-23, 127-31
--127 epistle from Joseph Smith - 121 epistle from liberty jail


not all revelations are canonized

--9 un-canonized revelations in revelation book 1 and 2
--to become canonized a revelation must be approved by 1st pres. and 12 and presented to church


different editions of D&C

1. Book of Commandments (most copies destroyed by mob in Missouri - Mary Elizabeth Rollins and sister saved)

2. The doctrine and covenants - 102 sections and lectures on faith

3. Orson Pratt - changes chapters to sections and adds verses that use today - add 26 sections

4. new cross ref. and footnotes - remove lectures on faith and add Off. dec. 1


D&C 1 the lord's preface

is a "call to arms"
who? all

what? destruction

when? 2nd coming

why? wickedness

wherefore? called Joseph

that? we can be prepared

(17) Wherefore Lord called Joseph and gave him comm. and revelations so THAT they could proclaim to world and fulfill words of prophets


4 reasons why JS and others would alter text of written revelations

1. errors in transcription

2. typographical errors

3. to comm. ideas more clearly

4. additional rev. rec. adds further understanding

"Revelation is malleable, changeable and actionable)


why is D&C unique?

--only scripture of modern origin
--only book of scripture written entirely in English
--only book of scripture with no storyline
--almost exclusively voice of Jesus Christ

rev. in D&C are answers to questions

--Bom brings men to Christ - the D&C brings men to Christ's kingdom - BOM is keystone of religion, D&C is capstone with continuing latter-day revelation - Benson


Overview of church history 2

---JS visited by Angel Moroni and shown location of plates - cont. to meet once a year on same date
--JS marries Emma Hale - rec. plates and begins translatation with Martin Harris
--Martin Harris loses 116 page manuscript
--cont. translation with Oliver Cowdery until complete

Church in the west
--many witnesses of BOM translation interviewed - including David Whitmer, Emma Smith, Martin Harris and others


the use of seers

-JS grew up in community that believed God could interact with people through miraculous means and objects
--1825 - Wayne Sentinel newspaper in Palmyra reported buried treasure found by help off a mineral stone - showed directions in a hat
--accounts vary but Joseph found a seer stone while digging in a well in 1822 at age 16

seer stone
--chocolate covered egg-shaped stone - possessed qualities of Urim and Thummim
--church holds several seer stones but not certain which is true - this chic. brown seer stone is only one that can be traced back to JS
--there were 11 others who are credited for holding seer stones as well - common at that time


Joseph Chastened by the Lord

Joseph says he rec. the most severe chastisement of his life from the angel Moroni before getting the plates
--Joseph lost the Urim and Thummim twice - 1st when Martin took the pages and 2nd when D&C 3 was rec.
--returned after a few days and Joseph rec. another revelation
--DC 10 - repent and thou art still chosen - promise the work will go fwd - directions not to translate lost portion of Lehi - instead translate from small plates of Nephi - promise work will go fwd and church established

God foresaw and prepared
--"our not knowing what is to come (in the perfect way that God knows it) thus preserves our free agency completely" - Maxwell

told he can get plates if comes with right person - knows through seer stone is is Emma Hale


Lost 116 pages lost and gained

Martin wanted to show his wife the plates - result: Martin not allowed to scribe anymore and Oliver becomes main

--Lehi's record - it was 116 pages and was Mormon's abridgement

--small plates of Nephi
--1 Ne. - Omni
--unabridged - 143 pages

JS says of this exp. what he learned, "I made this my rule: when the Lord commands, do it"


Different accounts in scripture

--Paul's vision on road to Damascus - resurrection of Christ

4 written accounts off 1st vision directly from Joseph smith
--8 firsthand accounts shared by JS in various accounts and 5 written by Joseph's contemporaries who likely heard story firsthand


1. 1832 account of first vision

--his first attempt to record the history - after DC 85 says to keep a history
--only account written in Joseph's own hand
--says at age 12 his mind was concerned with welfare of his soul and he read scriptures
--when the pillar of light came, first thing Lord says is, "Joseph, my son, thy sins are forgiven thee"

oldest but newest account bc found it in church archives later on - he waited 12 years to write


2. 1835 Account

To Joshua, the Jewish Minister (Robert Matthews - claimed he was reincarnated in the body of the Jewish "Matthias the Prophet" -
--Joseph says he called on the lord for the first time - talks about the darkness behind him - FIRST TIME HE MENTIONS OPPOSITION IN FIRST VISION STORY - said he heard someone walking behind him
--testifies of 2 people in this one and tells that he is Jesus Christ - also saw MANY ANGELS in this vision
--also details that one appeared and then the other


3. 1838 Account

--written to the many reports which have been put in circulation by evil disposed and designing persons
--this was for the public - to answer all questions
--tells about Lord telling him to join non of the church escorts they were all wrong and Creeds were an abomination in his sight
--account we use today
--explains why he wrote is in JSH - adds detail that none of churches were true and creeds


4. Wentworth letter and other accounts

--saw 2 personages - exactly resemble each other
--account of vision and articles of faith
--adds detail the father and son looked exactly the same

other contemporary accounts
--filled his mind with doubts and brought to mind all manner of inappropriate images - orson Hyde

"the first vision represents that moment when Joseph learned there was a way for the power of the Atonement to be unlocked fully"


"Creeds are an abomination in my sight"

--creed is formal stmt. of faith and doctrine - "I believe"
--4 christian creeds developed after Christ that became core Christian doctrine: Apostles creed, Nicene, Creed of Chalcedon, Athanasian

Athanasian creed
--worship one God in trinity - all one - one eternal and one infinite

many do not believe Mormons are Christian bc we do not accept the classic creeds - accept foundational doctrines about God and Christ

Pres. Hinckley - we do not accept the creeds based on conclusions of men - we do accept as basis of our doctrine the stmt. of Joseph smith that "light rested upon me and saw two personages"
---saw two in form like men but more glorious in appearance - they spoke to each other - not spirits but with distinct personality - beings of flesh and bone


The translation process

Joseph Smith's words
--by power of God translated from hieroglyphics

oliver cowdery
--"I wrote with my own pen the entire BOM" as it fell from lips of JS - he translated by power of God by means of Urim and Thummim (holy interpreters) - he saw with own eyes - that book is true.

David Whitmer
--JS would put seer stone in a hat and put his face in the hat - draw it close around face to hid light and in darkness spiritual light would shine - pice of something resembling parchment would appear like writing with one character at a time

JS read off the English to Oliver Cowdery who was principal strive - then read it back to JS to see if it was correct - then disappear and new character appear

Joseph would cont. after interruptions right where he left off w/o seeing manuscript or having any of it read back to him


Translation instruments of BOM

--BOM calles these 2 stones the "interpreters" - JS describes them as two stones in silver bows - 2 smooth cornered diamonds set in glass - look like old fashioned spectacles (glasses)

--often used a single seer stone rather than two stones bound together like the interpreters - chocolate brown egg shaped stone


Rec. personal revelation

--tells us in mind and heart
--spirit of revelation - pure intelligence flowing into you
--Oliver failed in 1st attempt to translate - Lord tell him he can translate and his gift of Aaron -- he fails because he didn't study it out - can't expect revelation out of the blue...must study it out and make intelligent choice then ask Lord to confirm if it is right
--burning in Bosom - not necessarily burning, but still small voice is still and small - Oaks
--we believe rev. are not constant - we believe in "continuing revelation but not continuous revelation" - we are often left to work out problems without the dictation or specific direction of the spirit. that is part of the experience we must have in mortality" - Oaks


The witnesses of the BOM
1. Martin Harris

Left church
--associated with apostate groups for several years
-returned to church 40 years later
lived 92 years and never denied his testimony

BOM is no fake - know what he knows and has seen and heard - has seen the gold plates - angel appeared to him and others and testified of truthfulness


2. Oliver Cowdery

--moved to Ohio and became lawyer and active in politics
--rejoined church 10 years later and died in 1850
-never denied testimony

held plates with his own hands - present with Joseph when angel appeared and restored Aaronic and Mlchizedek priesthood


3. David Whitmer

excommunicated 1838 (Same year for other 2)
--never rejoined church
--lived longer as was interviewed more than any other witness
--never denied his testiony

"our testimony is true - and if these things are not true then there is no truth, and if there is no truth there is no God. If there is no God there is no existence. But I know there is. God, for I have heard his voice and witnessed a manifestation of his power"


Restoration of priesthood through history

1. Beginnings
--JS and Oliver Cowdery visited by John the Baptist - resorts Aaronic
--later visited by Peter James and John who restore Melchizedek

2. 2 church centers
--JS and Oliver given additional priesthood keys when Christ, Moses, Elias, and Elijah appear in Kirtland temple

3. Nauvoo
--temple ordinances restored
--priesthood keys bestowed upon members of 12


Three orders of Priethood

1. Aaronic
--administers in outward ordinances and offering sacrifices
--kings and priests of most high God - hold keys of power and blessings
--perfect law of Theocracy and stands as God to give laws to people
--made by oath and covenant

2. Patriarchal authority

3. Levitical Priesthood
--consits of Priests to administer outward ordinances made without an oath

JS says "All priesthood is Melchizedek - but there are diff. portions or degrees of it"
(Venn diagram with big circle around Melchizedek and patriarchal and aaronic are smaller circles inside the big Melchizedek circle)


naming the priesthoods

1. Melchizedek - he was a great high priest - before him, it was just called the holy priesthood, after the order of the Son of God - changed name to avoid too few. repetition of his name


women and priesthood

--when set apart as full time missionary, given priesthood authority to perform priesthood function
--same when set apart as officer or teacher in church organization under direction of one who holds keys of priesthood - exercises priesthood authority in performing assigned duties


DC 13

restoration ofAaronic Priesthood
--three keys of it
1. ministering of angels (one of manifestations of spirit we are promised when we keep covenants at baptism)
2. gospel of repentence
--sacrament renews process of forgiveness
3. baptism by immersion
--"won't be taken until sons of Levi offer an offering"

restored at Susquehana river in Pennsylvania
--also ordained JS first elder of church and Oliver the second


DC 27

restoration of Melchizedek priesthood
--"greater priesthood" taken from earth during great apostasy
--restored same authority given to Christ's apostles anciently-
--with this authority, JS directed to organize church of Christ again on earth

restored in chamber of old father Whitmer

high priesthood
--new office and new power - diff. than an elder - included power to seal people up to heaven


expanding priesthood offices

original church of Christ in 1830 only had office of elder, priest, teacher and deacon
-1831 Bishop
-1834 Patriarch
-1835 Seventy and 12 apostles


Organization of church through history

1. beginnings
--1830 - organized - keep record and acknowledge JS as revelatory, apostle and elder - Fayatte, NY (in Whitmer home)
--June 1830 - first church confirmed. held - approved articles and covenants


DC 20

The church Constitution - or "Articles and covenants"
--inspired rewrite of Oliver Cowdery's "Articles" from DC 18

--original name of church
--foundational events of church
--foundational doctrines of church
--foundational practices
--Joseph's give titles and their respective meanings

divided into 3 sections
1. foundational events and authority
2. foundational doctrines
3. foundational practices or applications


1. foundational events and authority

---JS called of God, given comm., ordained as elders
--repenting and humbling through faith - minister of angel - who gave comm. to translate BOM


foundational doctrines

--there is infinite and eternal God in heaven
--he created male and female after his own image
--gave comm. to love and serve only him
--man fell by transgression 0 so God sent his Son
--crucified, died and rose again
--as many as believe and baptized in his name should be saved
--HG bears record of Father and son -- one God infinite and eternal
--repent, believe, worship in his name and endure to the end

1. creation of earth
2. fall of Adam
3. Atonement of Christ



in theology, remission of sin and abolition from guilt and punishment - or an act of free grace by which God pardons the sinner and accepts him as righteous, on account of the atonement of Christ

Christ can answer ends of the law on our behalf
--become like Him, without sin - sustained and protected by the law, by justice



act of making holy - act of God's grace by which the affections of men are purified or alienated from sin and the world, and exalted to a supreme love of God

become clean, pure, holy
--justification removes the punishment for past sin, then sanctification removes the stain or effects of sin

"when the will, passions and feelings of a person are perfectly submissive to God and His requirements. That person is sanctified. It is for my will to be swallowed up in the will of God"
--Brigham Young


3. Foundational practices

--baptism - qualifications
--Priesthood office duties (deacon, teacher, priest and elder)
--duties of members after baptism
--blessing children
--age of accountability for baptism
--baptismal prayer and immersion
--sacrament prayers
--keeping records of members of the church


DC 21

Joseph Smiths titles
--greater than a prophet - gift greater can no man have
--one who sees with spiritual eyes - interpreter and clarifier of eternal truth - done by power of God operating through him directly (or indirectly though divine instrument like Urim and Thummim)
--one who sees, who walks in Lord's light with open eyes

--able to discern and understand and transmit the intent of original scriptural writer (JST)

--testify of Christ and teach His gospel - make known God's will and true character
--in bible dictionary: "prophet is anyone who has a testimony of Christ by the HG"

-- a special witness of Christ

--minister of Lord Jesus Christ - holds Melchizedek Priesthood


DC 29

29 - Plan of Salvation
42 - Law of Consecration
3 - Lost Manuscript
17 - Hiram Page's seerstone
37 - the gathering
51 - the bishop