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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (111):
1

How can we make the spelling tennis ball game easier?

switch teams

2

beginning middle and end of leading a game

start, solid content, close well

3

play community 1-4

playing for fun - support each other for growth, surprises and fun!
- emphasize teamwork and share the power
- play is communication and communication facilitates playfulness
- involvement and participation - access, wait time
- integration of everyone

4

facilitation vs arbitrary authority

making things easy for people vs commanding them

5

where does power come from? 1- 5

relationships you establish - trust, confidence, learn from mistakes, model foolish, communication

6

the four ps of getting a game going/ 4 p's of facilitation

purpose, planning, prep, and presentation

7

purpose - 3

fun and successful
what do i want to have happen?
did i fulfill my purpose?

8

planning - 1- 5 things to consider

every single variable - players, situation, setting, game, leader

9

players 1- 5- 2

how many
needs, abilities, size and mix, lightning rods, culture/interests
- pos emotional experience, challenge and complexity

10

situation - 1 - 3

context - emotional(group) and circumstance of activity
what do we need to do?
emergencies/backup plans?

11

setting

physical environment

12

game - 4

energy, competitive vs cooperative, expressiveness, mood

13

leader - 4

confidence, experience, support
complex/simple activity
successful performance
work together as a group - experiences between members

14

overplan with flexibility - 3

unanticipated circumstances
# of people/gps
open to opinions

15

Fail safe games - 2

have a few that always work/extra time
where will it fit? how it wraps up the mood

16

MAPP - 3

max activity per player - keep them engaged and try not to eliminate people
dont be detrimental to their emotions as it will be detrimental to the objective of your game as it takes away the focus

17

Should you plan extra games?

yes but have flex time and just enjoy

18

prep - 3

gathering, testing, set up

19

gathering - 3

supplies, information of group, hip pocket list of script of order and timing (your anchor)

20

testing - 3

practice, confidence and eye contact, what ifs

21

presentation -1- 5 - 2

recruit, focus, explain
describe, demo, ask for questions, do it, adapt it - debrief
types of learners, variation and flexibility of things if they do it too quickly/slowly

22

for attention getting - 5 - optional

huggles
freeze and melt
red hanky
whisper
noise making things

23

recruiting - 6

invite them
humor
enthusiasm
give them something as soon as they walk in
let them know they dont hae to be perfect
dont guilt trip

24

focussing - 4

flow - challenge, focus, attention, spirit

25

warm ups - 2

ice breakers
changing mindsets

26

dividing teams - 4

diversity, quickly, creatively, playfully

27

explaining

over 75% of human communication is nonverbal - model what you want

28

describe - 2

info - objective
seen and heard

29

demo - 5

keep it splendidly simple
use your players
practice rounds
background story
safety issues

30

ask for questions - 2

they can observe first then join
ask a particular person what the rules are

31

adapt it - 5

with your players
access
safety
novelty
challenge

32

when you are playing multiple games - 4

warm ups are important
common games to start
competitive later
initial games are your assessment tools

33

what is leadership - 4

inpire/promote positive change by engaging followers to exercise leadership in their own right - ambrose
art of getting people to perform a task willingly - knight
series of behaviours that enables a group to accomplish commonnly desired goals - ray
process of exerting influence over others - eastman

34

has there been much change in the development of the definition?

no

35

business world recognized what?

leaders are required and they have certain characteristics or traits

36

you are not a leader unless

there are people following you

37

leadership vs management production

change and movement vs order and consistency
process vs end product

38

3 ideas of leadership

establish direction with a vision and set strategies
aligns people - communication/commitment/teams
motivates and inspires - energize, empower and satisfy

39

3 ideas of management

planning and budgeting
organizing and staffing
controlling and problem solving

40

does leadership or management lead to success?

neither, blending the 2

41

a productive leader - 2

leads and accomplishes goals

42

why play cooperative games? in what environments do these happen in?

experience the skills that good followers and leaders do in mostly non-threatening, mostly fun, hopefully learning environment

43

are coorperative games traditional?

no, its what you learn after you know - earl weaver

44

3 characteristics of cooperative games

infinite and finite - specific ending vs no winner or loser - rules change over time
intentionally contain a certain amount of spontaneous unpredictability
doesnt have all the answers/ending

45

4 elements of a successful CG

communication
trust - needs to be built
collaboration
fun

46

4 types of CG

ice breakers
initiative games - think/role play
tricks and variations - thinking, team heads and tails
trust

47

facilitation

increased ease of performance of any action resulting from, the continued, succesive application of necessary stim (leading or managing)

48

ease of performance - 5

are things easy for them?
what are they accomplishing?
want to make it easy for accomplishment
are they doing things we intended for them to? is it beneficial?
make the roles easier

49

necessary stim - 3

you are the stim
what do you contribute? - what to do so they achieve their goals
good facilitator - power not authority, control, intimidation but a stim for change

50

5 types of power

legit
coercive
reward
referent
expert

51

legit power
advantage - 2
disadvantage

law/formal authority
advantage - increased effectiveness of leader and clear guidelines of job
disadvantage - easily abused

52

coercive power
advantage
disadvantage - 5

threatening punishment
advantage - motivated really quickly
disadvantage - high employment turnover, lose respect, no longterm use followers, less willing to bring ideas forward, lower job satisfaction

53

reward power
advantage - 2
disadvantage - 2

give a reward if they do something right - tangible and intangible
advantage - tangible motivates to work - increase effectiveness, intangible motivates the workplace
disadvantage - tangible can run out of resources/finances, not providing the same to people

54

referent power - 4
advantage
disadvantage - 4

power to influence with trust,
unintentional, power because of high level of identification - admiration and respect
friendly yet business like
bosses wont have referent power
advantage - trust in authority - decrease of obstacle
disadvantage - leader expects certain behaviour, hard to change the norm, long time for trust, high employment turnover,

55

Expert power - 3
advantage - 2
disadvantage - 3

high level of knowledge or specialized skills
reward and coercive or both ex
used on anyone with a perceived lower level of knowledge
advantage - helps you get noticed, seek your advice
disadvantage - use for self, leave others, blind faith

56

conductor - 3

facilitate
stimulant
informant

57

how is facilitation achieved?

putting things in place that will potentially accomplish something

58

how do you know if you are facilitating? - 2

are your people accomplishing something or something that you have intended for them to accomplish?

59

What are you?

a stim - to make things easier for the group

60

what not to confuse power with/misunderstand it with - 4

manipulation
authority - referent/legitimate
intimidation
dominance

61

timing is key - 3

be comfortable doing activities shorter/longer
variations of activities
how long will briefing take?

62

delegation of tasks amongst leadership team - 2

whos leading the convo? things before transition?

63

1840s

great man theory - only men had the skills to lead, some men had what it took to ascend to the leadership position (monarchy)

64

1930-40 - 2

HR approach - the way we treat people can lead them to behave in diff ways,
trait theories - list of things you should have - problems - not all leaders have the same set of traits, some use good traits in a bad way

65

hawkthorne experiements -

more lightbulbs they work better? no they know they are being watched

66

1950-60

behavioural approach - use these behaviours/train for behaviours - engage, understand, apply - we dont have to be born with these

67

Blake and Mouton's Grid 1964 - 3

xy grid with x being the concern for production and y for concern for people
5 locations and type of power
can use styles interchangably - continuum of strategy contingent on when and how we use different styles

68

9;1 Blake and Mouton's Grid 1 - 3

authority obedience - high task low relationships
-do the work to get the job done
-people are a commodity
-dictates what and how to do things without concern for people

69

1;9 Blake and Mouton's Grid 1- 3

country club management - high concern for relationships
- focus on followers, not exactly a stim to get things done
- purpose is incidental
- fostering good feelings gets primary attention

70

1;1 Blake and Mouton's Grid 1- 3

impoverished management - they dont get anything done
- not a stim and no effort to make sure they are a group
- min concern for either behaviour
- purpose is unobtainable

71

5;5 Blake and Mouton's Grid 1-3

organization man management - position of moderation
- bit of stim work to engage in task progression but not achievers or strong stim towards task completion
- leader goes along to get along
- results in conformity to status quo

72

9;9 Blake and Mouton's Grid 1 - 3

team management - maximize both behaviours
- work and ppl are necessary of each other
- leader is goal centred
- seeks results through participation, commitment, and involvemnt of all who can contribute

73

masquerade technique

mask themselves as good leaders and they that they are one but are not perceived as one

74

3 criticisms of the blake and mouton grid

no established link between styles and outcomes - high in task should be more productive but that just means they are more task oriented, but not how our group will actually perform
fail to find a universal style for effective leadership - hard for use to define whats effective - diff disciplines have diff characteristics
implies, without empirical support that high high is most effective - diff ways to look at leaders

75

1960s

contingency theories - leadership is based on the situations

76

fiedler's contingency theory

effectiveness contingent upon relationship between leadership style (personality traits) and degree to which the situation enables the leader to exert influence (context)

77

leaders are 1 -2

oriented to a particular style - stable and not easy to change
either task or relationship oriented
measured by least preferred coworker scale - empathy for your least preferred team member

78

High LPC leaders

people oriented -able to have pos feelings toward a weak/nonproductive member

79

low LPC leaders

task oriented - unable to rate LP member very high

80

situational favourableness depends on 3

leader member relations - how well do followers and leaders get along - high LPC makes you more successful, low may not matter
task structure - how clearly are jobs specified, performance matters
position power - amt of legitimate, reward, and coercive power

81

does situation become stable?

yes, so find situations that you will be successful in

82

low LPC leaders and situations -3

do best in most and least favourable situations
u shape in successful vs performance effectiveness
you will have everything lined up for you or you dont care about people so it doesnt matter

83

high LPC leaders and situations - 3

do best in moderately favourable situations
bigger window for opportunity to succeed
moderating relationships and power intersections

84

3 controversies of fiedlers contingency theory

only 2 ways to improve leadership effectiveness
change leader's persinality
modify degree to which situation is favourable

85

how to modify the degree to which the situation is favourable 3-1

organization can change the situation by altering the composition of the group - leader member
rules/procedures in the task situations - task structure
what the leader can and cant do - position power
more effective and flexible leaders

86

1970s transactional theories -

business and the relationship between the leader and the follower

87

1970s transactional and transformational theories

leaders transform and followers - do still have responsibilities

88

1980s-90s

Multidimensional model of leadership - sport and PA
- encompasses all theories
- well tested - strong model
Antecedents - situational, leader and member characteristics
Leader behaviour - required behaviour, actual behaviour, preferred behaviour
Consequences - performance and satisfaction

89

leadership scale for sports 3-5

Trying to understand leaders’ behaviour - created by one of the same men that developed the MD model
40 questions to ask about scenarios and situations and understand a certain set of behaviours that will be performed by a sports leader
Chelladurai and Saleh
Democratic b
Autocratic b - both decision making styles
Social support
Positive feedback - both motivation
Training and instruction - task
40

90

Question set for leadership scale for sports

Did your coach do this? Do you think its required for your coach to? What would you prefer your coach do?

91

Preferred leader behaviour for age 1 -4

Chelladurai and Carron (1983)
- only conclusive with these guys
- male basketball in 4 age groups, gradual increase in age and level of play
- preference in social support (they already have the training and skill, this will get them over that hump), automatic (want others to make decision for them so they can focus on the game, realize the value of another perspective, we don’t want to take responsibility) increased linearly
- training and instruction increases then decreases for uni

92

Preferred leader behaviour and gender - 2

Chelladurai and Saleh (1978); Terry (1984)
- male PE majors preferred autocratic
- females preferred democratic

93

Congruence between leadership behaviour and success and performance

What will I do to affect the success and performance

94

Congruent between leader behaviours and consequences/performance - 2 studies

Van Schaik, Wilson, and Potwarka (2013)
Democratic DM, Social support and positive feedback and less autocratic
More likely to play playoffs
Rune, Jones, and Peters (2008)
Democratic DM, Training and instruction and positive feedback unsuccessful
Both used CIS and both genders

95

Congruence of leader behaviour and satisfaction 1-3

Difference between actual and preferred Ieader behaviour in areas of
Training and instruction (Damon, 2009) - will they listen and practice - ind athletes
Pos fdbk
Social support
mostly affected athlete’s satisfaction
Engage athletes in what they want

96

Congruence between leader behaviour and satisfaction for Weiss and Friedrichs (1986) 3

251 male ball players and their coaches - middle school basketball camp
Higher rewarding behaviour, social support and democratic for high satisfaction
High social support correlated with poorer performance records in younger kids
Younger coaches with good win loss records with less playing experience get a high level of satisfaction - performance?

97

Summing up congruence

More research is needed for validation

98

Can we define the skills? - 2

Leader skill profiles
Trait theory

99

Peg legged pig - 3

Regardless of how good you are at being a leader there are parts that may be less than perfect
Can’t define all the traits that all good leaders need to have
Must interpret the followers’ feelings as a leader - followers are always thinking of feedback

100

Do we spend most of our lives leading or following?

Following :(

101

Helping to refine our skills - 4

Training
Practice
Experience - cant get experience and training without practice, without practice you cant get experience - best thing is to have someone take a chance on you “catch 22”
Mastery

102

Why refine our skills - 2

In the end it is important to remember that we cannot become what we need to by remaining what we are
Is it important to put yourself out there and practice

103

What does research say about skill development? - 4

Coaching behaviour assessment system (smith and small, 1971 uni of washington)
- categorized behaviours of baseball players
- coaching - organization
- what do we know about the skills coaches have? - what are the coaches doing?
- allow the coaches to create a better environment

104

What do coaches do? M vs F
Who did they look at?

- male coaches increase technical instruction and decrease general encouragement
- female coaches decrease the technical and increase general encouragement
CIS soccer coaches - wide range of gender regardless of athletes, didn’t change leader behaviour regardless

105

What do athletes want?

Players have an affinity for coaches who - improve their skills, build relationships and let them participate in decision making
Cannot identify congruence between these
Every leader has to make the decision of how to use the skills and abilities they have
No thing that tells you what to do in diff situations

106

TART?

Try
Assess
Refine
Try again
? - mastery

107

T for try - 4

Training/practice
Free to try
Learn from every leader/follower opportunity, then try them
Knowledge is as powerful as you make it, no power unless you use it

108

A for assess

Feedback - use in many diff manners, each time there are diff things that occur in the same activities

109

R for refine - 2

What can you do to change the activity based on the followers?
How can we change?

110

T for try again - 2

Get more experience
Practice and gain experience

111

Mastery

We never master things as a leader or follower, its about evolving to the situation