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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (57):

Facilitating well means you are

Communicating well


Communication is what kind of process

Continuous and people process


5 things that communication is affected by

Verbal / non verbal medium
Filter for the coach - attitude, past experience, motives for coaching
Filter for the participants - attitude, past experience, motives for participating
One way communication


Communication involves

Listening and speaking


3 ways of effective communication

Being open
Communicate positively
Communicate clearly


How to be open? -2

Personalize discussion by repeating/contextualizing what they said - I see what you’re saying, make you’re aware of other people’s contributions
Two way communication by asking for and obtaining feedback


When go use one way communication?

Discipline and safety


How to communicate positively? - 6

Be courteous, tolerant, patient, constructive, and loyal - know your audience


How to communicate clearly?

Speak in a concise, amplified, all inclusive manner with proper body language


If you don’t communicate clearly ...

Alternative outcomes of what you thought was clear - can also depends on the listener’s capacity to listen, filter and understand


If your listener didn’t hear you in the way you intended for them to hear you - how can you fix it?

Why did they misunderstand and how can we fix it?
Situational dependent


How do you form your group?

Criteria that you look for - what defines a group


What is a group? 1- 4

Any collection of people is thought of as a group
1. Awareness and acknowledgement
2. A group involves interaction
3. Beliefs that membership will satisfy some need
4. A group is more productive than its individual members


Participant vs functional groups

Functional groups are more important to us from a leadership perspective - we want one to have all 4 of those characteristics.
Participant groups don’t have a purpose, unaware that we are in one and lack common goal


Stages of group development

Tuckman (1965) identified these stages of development for groups - sports teams are influenced by a lot of other factors
1. Forming - assessing situation, initial impression, uncertain stage
2. Storming - conflict arises, struggle for leadership may occur
3. Norming - trying to be more productive, bringing in diff things and working with them
4. Performing - long term goals, team work, solutions, not all groups reach this stage or stay in this stage
5. Adjourning and transforming - deforming and mourning - Tuckman and Jensen (1977) - successful completion of goals and prepare for disengagement


Role of leaders and facilitators in the process of group development

Trying to get the groups through these stages


Time for achieve group development



First follower principle

Leadership is over glorified, treat your first few followers as equals - be bold and follow a lone nut if they have a brilliant idea


Thoughts about followership - 4

Negative connotations
Can’t think for themselves - do what’s popular
Can’t lead - lacking skills and characteristics
Characteristics - social norms


Why would someone wanna be a follower

Good follower before they become a good leader


5 reasons of being a follower

1. Fear of retribution
- we dont want something negative to happen - so we dont lose our ...
- not a good reason to follow but opportunity to engage with others and change the social norm
- if there’s a good person to be a captain
2. Blind hope
- idea/hope that something may happen from you engaging
3. Faith in leader
- see someone with power and believe that’s the person you want to participate with
- someone with skills
4. Intellectual agreement
- agreeing with good ideas
5. Buying the vision
- you think they have a good idea


What do followers want?

1. Participation must provide satisfaction
2. They will participate at DIFFERENT LEVELS of INTENSITY - time
- Csikszentmihalyi (1990) (chicks and Mahalia) - “flow” is a dynamic condition that people feel when they act with total involvement - engage followers, leaders are focussing on a different level of flow and method to get to it - emotional state
3 - interaction with the environment
- circumstances of the setting can include nice the follower’s behaviour - less engaged and satisfaction if they don’t like their group - affect other people
- follower environment (physical and social) behavioural outcomes (satisfaction and intensity)


Follower types and critical thinking

Alienated and effective followers which have high critical thinking
Sheep and yes people have low critical thinking


Follower types and types of participators

Alienated and sheep followers are passive participators
Effective and yes people are active participators


Sheep follower

Not as productive, do whatever you tell them to do


Low critical thinking participants

Find inspiration from leaders and followers to help them - intensity varies between sheep vs yes



Not 100% in, wrong reason, less motivated to engage


Most valued participants

Effective participants


Group characteristics - 5

All groups possess certain characteristics
1. Group cohesion -final goals - important as you’re more likely to be satisfied
2. Group morale - help of hinder, closely linked to group norms
3. Group norms - expectation of one another in a group
4. Group structure - extent to which power and authority are retained by members at the top of the group - centralization - power in 1 location (top)
- at the lower levels of the group - decentralization - power shared
5. Group productivity - group that disappoints dont wanna be part of the group again, may be brought back strictly for social aspect
Participation when two groups come together.


Centralization example

Coach/staff then team, power in one place at the top


Centralization/decentralization of group size

Larger vs smaller


Centralization/decentralization of group goal

Immediate and demanding vs casual and long range


Centralization/decentralization of group dispersion

Wider vs narrower


Centralization/decentralization of group formal structure/complexity

Complex vs simple


Centralization/decentralization group formal structure clarity

Unclear vs clear


Follower’s interaction with the environment

Circumstances of the setting can influence their behaviour - if you dont like your group you will be less engaged, less satisfied, and negatively affect other people
Followers goes into the environment (physical and social) which goes into behavioural outcomes (satisfaction and intensity) which feeds back into the environment esp the social aspect


Decentralization example

Power spread out and away from the top - players make decisions


Group productivity

Important for satisfaction and success, minimum could negatively affect other aspects of the group


Identical leadership behaviour from men and women can

Be interpreted differently because of gender stereotyping


Leadership behaviour can affect

Follower perceptions which is back and forth between individual, group, and organizational outcomes


Stereotypes - 2

Influence what we think, comes from our experiences


Behaviours as males and females

Interpreted differently


Gender based stereotypes

Expected interpersonal behaviour
Types of roles/ jobs best suited for me and women based on sexual habits
- females are more guarded in who they mate with


Hopkins vs Price Waterhouse

Gender stereotyping law suit - Woman sued price Waterhouse as she was denied partnership because she didnt act the way she was supposed to as a woman - she won but they think there is a lack of confidence


Leadership styles of men and women (Eagly, and Johannesburg - Schmidt, 2001)


Women face greater barriers to become leaders - they are more cooperative and collaborative and more oriented to enhancing others’ self worth

Men are described to be more assertive, controlling, aggressive, ambitious and competitive

Potential for bias, influence preemptively by name, followership qualities and how we behave as leaders


Title VI and VII of 1964 civil rights act

Both did not cover discrimination by gender or all employees -> title 9 covered any federal funded ed programs and employees
Many more opportunities for women and reached their potential


What did title 9 do for sport? - 5

In institutions, participation for gender had to equal
Avg # of sports offered went from 5.6 to 9
Soccer roster size went from 22- 307
Participation rates jumped
1981 to 2009 female participation went up 173% and males went up 40%
Since 1981 2790M and 4085F teams added and 2542 and 1748 teams dropped - male sports suffered a loss of programs


What did title 9 do for coaching - 4

More than 1000 new head coaching positions created but 75% went to men
Avg % women headcoaching women decreased from 90-48to42%
Women hold 61% of the paid coaching positions for women’s teams
Less than 2% women HC men - almost all in combined sports (i.e. T&F, swimming)


Canadian inter university sport - usport - 200/5 who gets all the funding by the govt and follow the rules

Gender policy - all
- min 40% must go to each gender - doesnt take into account the number of actual participants - only an assumption


% of m and f full time student and participation opportunities at Canadian unis - roster vs full time

F have a smaller set of roster (44%) but they rep more than 50% of the pop
Opposite for males
Males have a greater opportunity, every 3 roster for males there’s 2 for females


Goods news for CN funding participation

431m and 425f - roster positions 56%m and 44%f


Bad news for CN funding leadership -3

19%HC and 17% athletic director held by F
Male coaches of female teams of both gender segregated and co-ed teams are both much higher than female coaches of male teams
20% F coaches in olympics


Leadership development questions to ask - 3

How we lead - why? Relationship between follower and leader, what happens?
Characteristics of a good leader
Can we all be good leaders?


Commitment continuum

Resistant - not bought in
Reluctant - wait and see
Existent - go through the motions
Compliant - do what you’re told
Committed - self-motivated, go the extra mile
Compelled - no matter what, find a way to reach your goals


Leader and the commitment continuum

How much you want to give as a leader - you want to compel them


A leader is best

When people barely know that he exists
Not so good when ppl obey and acclaim him
Talks little, when his work is done and aim fulfilled, they will say - we did this ourselves


Fail to honour people and

They will fail to honour you