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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (102)
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1

What is a Taxon

a taxonomic unit

2

what is Taxonomy?

a branch of science concerned with the classification of organisms

3

what is thermoregulation?

the process of allowing your body to remain its core internal temperature. this is helpful to Reptiles but costly in terms of energy

4

physiology drives ______

behaviour

5

what is a phenotype?

used to determine classification; a set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment

6

whats so special about about newts?

they have stages on the land and then they go back to the water, they are the only amphibian to do this

7

what did amphibians evolve from?

they evolved from Dipnomorphia or Lungfish

8

where is the pineal gland of birds and reptiles?

on the top of the brain, unlike humans where it is deep inside the brain

9

what is Aves?

birds. a big class with alot of subgroups. some (ravens, crows and magpies) have very sophisticated social behaviour.
Corvios, psittacios and sturnids are very good at imitating sound

10

describe Mammal

only animals to breast feed children, 3 sub-groups (prototheria, maeatheria {marsupials}, Eutheria [placentals])

11

what is prototheria?

ones with eggs, show connection to reptiles; 1 order; ex. platypus

12

what are Methatheria?

marsupials; rodent lke and carnivore like marsupials; 7 orders. ex. Possums

13

what are Eutheria?

placentals. come from placenta, most mammals; 18 orders

14

what is the current classification of primates?

strepsirhini (nocturnal e.g., lemurs) & haplorhini (monkeys and apes)

15

what is the current classification of carnivores?

dog-like (e.g., bears) & Cat-like (e.g., hyenas)

16

what is the current classification of rodents (rodentia)?

squirrel-like and mouse-like

17

who is the Father of Behaviourism?

Watson who worked with baby Albert

18

what do behaviourists believe in?

behaviourists believe in learning; teaching animals how to perform certain acts

19

what is cognitivism?

similar to nature v. nurture; not as concerned about being uptight about behaviour. Believe in the information theory. biologists used to dismiss cognitivism, claimed it had nothing to do with biology.

20

What is cognitive ethology?

created by Griffin who was interested in beavers because they started covering noise making devices, showing that this behaviour is innate. cognitive ethology focuses on consciousness and mind.

21

what is homoplasy?

convergent evolution ex. wings developing

22

what two sciences contribute to animal behaviour?

psychology and psychology. anthropology also contributes to the field (Primatology and Anthrozoology)

23

what are the three branches within biology that contribute to animal behaviour?

ethology, sociobiology and behavioural ecology

24

describe sociobiology

introduced by E. O. Wilson; took ethology, evolved genetics and social behaviour all together to create sociobiology. not used as often now, due to race and gender issues that arose in the 60s-70s

25

what is Forensic Entomology?

looks at what kinds of insects/larvae are on dead bodies in order to determine how long the body has been there (hours or days). uses sexton/burying beetles and carrion beetles.

26

what is special about Possums?

only marsupials in north america

27

in relation to FAP, what do neuroethologists look at?

IRM; the mechanism in the brain that triggers FAP

28

in relation to FAP what do ethologists focus on?

SS and FAP; not so much IRM

29

who trained pigeons for the US Army

skinner trained pigeons to drop missiles, they pecked a dot on a screen to get trained

30

what animal is used to study concussions

Rams and Woodpeckers