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describe intra sexual selection

males or females competing with each other. competition can precede or follow conception/ mating. for example lions, strange male lions will take over the pride and kill the male and babies and re impregnate the female lion.


describe inter sexual selection

when males or females choose their mates. mating often involves courting or advertisement. ex. female deer will choose the buck that controls the largest feeding areas


what is polygyny

when males have access to all the females they want. male-male competition is common among these species


what is polyandry?

when females have access to all the males they want


what is Kleptogamy?

sneak-mating. for ex. some toads will wait for a more attractive toad and when the female starts to approach this toad they will jump on them


what are K species

think Kool. longer life span, longer gestation. stable climate and environment, larger in size, extensive and high quality parental care. ex. elephants


describe R and K species

favouring quality over quantity of offspring, longer gestation and more parental care


describe R species.

think Rushed. ex. mice; short life span, short gestation, more off spring, unstable environment, little to no parental care or investment


what are generalists?

animals that often live close to humans, often eat anything and live anywhere. bobcats are generalists


what are specialists?

species with specific diets, habitats, homerange size. for example canadian lynx will only eat hares


what are epigametic sexual characteristics

secondary sexual characteristics that males or females will look for, usually there to attract females


what is sexual dimorphisms?

when females look different. typical in polygamous and monogamous special, male and females look alot alike


what are the different modes of reproduction?

- gonochoristic (male and female parts)
- hermaphroditic ( individuals have both sperm and eggs)
- parthenogenetic mode: all individuals have ovaries, only need one to reproduce


what is the parental experience hypothesis?

first time mother's offspring is are less likely to survive because mother's do not know what they are doing.. survival rate increases with each child they have.
ex. rhesus monkeys. mothering seems to require a learning process


what is the parental provision theory?

psychologically preferred, the idea that the parent is there to provide care for offspring


what is the conflict model?

sociobiologists pushed this theory in the 60s and 70s. the idea that parents and kids have different ideas on how things should go


what is the symbiosis model?

a theory that is starting to gain popularity. the idea that everyone gets something out of parental care


what is the conflict model?

alot of resources used on offspring and everything is fine at first but as the offspring go parents start competing with their offsprinf for resources.
ex. cats; after the first moth f amazing maternal care it seems as though the mother is ready to kill the young


what is dispersion?

when to kick the offspring out and make them more independent, common in species that do not form permanent social groups


what is the Gamete order hypothesis?

the idea that the last parent to release gametes give the parental care. major limitation: fertilization mode


how is paternal care defined in amphibians and reptiles?

- nest creation and attendance
- nest guarding
- transportation
- feeding the young
- guarding or attending the young


describe the northern jacana

- a perfect example of paternal care. females are polyandrous and are responsible for territorial protection. the males are smaller and in charge of nest building and the defence of chicks. a complete role reversal


describe helping (alloparental care) in canids

- foxes: aunting
- wolves: became a social system or a unit that is often multigenerational
- coyotes: intermediary and flexible system


what is paternal care usually associated with?

paternal care is usually associated with biparental care
- 70% of birds
- 3% mammals


what are the criteria for paternal care in canids?

- grooming
- transporting
- feeding
- defending
- guarding
- baby-sitting
- playing
- care to female (usually bringing her food)


what are alternative mating strategies?

- forced matings (common in mallard ducks)
- sneak mating ( kleptogamy). common in deer, wolves, bull frogs


what are the types of monogamy?

- genetic monogamy
- sexual or mating monogamy
- social monogamy


what is genetic monogamy?

- DNA analysis confirming mating/pair bond between a male and a female


what is social monogamy?

social living arrangement between a male and a female


what is the criteria of monogamy?

- reduced sexual dismorphism
- exclusivity of mating
- pair bond
- biparental care
- exclusion of non-in from the family
- reproductive suppression
- incest avoidance