Flashcards in midterm 2 Deck (74)
describe intra sexual selection
males or females competing with each other. competition can precede or follow conception/ mating. for example lions, strange male lions will take over the pride and kill the male and babies and re impregnate the female lion.
describe inter sexual selection
when males or females choose their mates. mating often involves courting or advertisement. ex. female deer will choose the buck that controls the largest feeding areas
what is polygyny
when males have access to all the females they want. male-male competition is common among these species
what is polyandry?
when females have access to all the males they want
what is Kleptogamy?
sneak-mating. for ex. some toads will wait for a more attractive toad and when the female starts to approach this toad they will jump on them
what are K species
think Kool. longer life span, longer gestation. stable climate and environment, larger in size, extensive and high quality parental care. ex. elephants
describe R and K species
favouring quality over quantity of offspring, longer gestation and more parental care
describe R species.
think Rushed. ex. mice; short life span, short gestation, more off spring, unstable environment, little to no parental care or investment
what are generalists?
animals that often live close to humans, often eat anything and live anywhere. bobcats are generalists
what are specialists?
species with specific diets, habitats, homerange size. for example canadian lynx will only eat hares
what are epigametic sexual characteristics
secondary sexual characteristics that males or females will look for, usually there to attract females
what is sexual dimorphisms?
when females look different. typical in polygamous and monogamous special, male and females look alot alike
what are the different modes of reproduction?
- gonochoristic (male and female parts)
- hermaphroditic ( individuals have both sperm and eggs)
- parthenogenetic mode: all individuals have ovaries, only need one to reproduce
what is the parental experience hypothesis?
first time mother's offspring is are less likely to survive because mother's do not know what they are doing.. survival rate increases with each child they have.
ex. rhesus monkeys. mothering seems to require a learning process
what is the parental provision theory?
psychologically preferred, the idea that the parent is there to provide care for offspring
what is the conflict model?
sociobiologists pushed this theory in the 60s and 70s. the idea that parents and kids have different ideas on how things should go
what is the symbiosis model?
a theory that is starting to gain popularity. the idea that everyone gets something out of parental care
what is the conflict model?
alot of resources used on offspring and everything is fine at first but as the offspring go parents start competing with their offsprinf for resources.
ex. cats; after the first moth f amazing maternal care it seems as though the mother is ready to kill the young
what is dispersion?
when to kick the offspring out and make them more independent, common in species that do not form permanent social groups
what is the Gamete order hypothesis?
the idea that the last parent to release gametes give the parental care. major limitation: fertilization mode
how is paternal care defined in amphibians and reptiles?
- nest creation and attendance
- nest guarding
- feeding the young
- guarding or attending the young
describe the northern jacana
- a perfect example of paternal care. females are polyandrous and are responsible for territorial protection. the males are smaller and in charge of nest building and the defence of chicks. a complete role reversal
describe helping (alloparental care) in canids
- foxes: aunting
- wolves: became a social system or a unit that is often multigenerational
- coyotes: intermediary and flexible system
what is paternal care usually associated with?
paternal care is usually associated with biparental care
- 70% of birds
- 3% mammals
what are the criteria for paternal care in canids?
- care to female (usually bringing her food)
what are alternative mating strategies?
- forced matings (common in mallard ducks)
- sneak mating ( kleptogamy). common in deer, wolves, bull frogs
what are the types of monogamy?
- genetic monogamy
- sexual or mating monogamy
- social monogamy
what is genetic monogamy?
- DNA analysis confirming mating/pair bond between a male and a female
what is social monogamy?
social living arrangement between a male and a female