Midterm 1 Chapter 1, 5, 6, 7 Flashcards Preview

Educational Psychology 302 > Midterm 1 Chapter 1, 5, 6, 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm 1 Chapter 1, 5, 6, 7 Deck (215)
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1

accommodation

According to Piaget, the modification of existing schemes to permit the incorporation of new events or knowledge. p. 19

2

adaptation

According to Piaget, an interaction between the organism and the environment that consists of two processes: assimilation and accommodation. p. 19

3

assimilation

According to Piaget, the incorporation of new events or knowledge into existing schemes. p. 19

4

behaviourism

John B. Watson’s view that a science or theory of development must study observable behaviour only and investigate relationships between stimuli and responses. p. 8

5

case study

A carefully drawn biography of the life of an individual. p. 35

6

child

A person undergoing the period of development from infancy through puberty. p. 4

7

chronosystem

The environmental changes that occur over time and have an impact on the child (from the Greek chronos, meaning “time”). p. 24

8

classical conditioning

A simple form of learning in which one stimulus comes to bring forth the response usually elicited by a second stimulus by being paired repeatedly with the second stimulus. p. 13

9

cognitive-developmental theory

The stage theory that holds that the child’s abilities to mentally represent the world and solve problems unfold as a result of the interaction of experience and the maturation of neurological structures. p. 18

10

cohort effect

Similarities in behaviour among a group of peers that stem from the fact that group members are approximately the same age. p. 40

11

control group

A group made up of subjects in an experiment who do not receive the treatment, but for whom all other conditions are comparable to those of subjects in the experimental group. p. 38

12

correlation

A relationship between variables in which one variable increases as a second variable also increases (a positive correlation) or decreases (a negative correlation). p. 36

13

correlation coefficient

A number ranging from +1.00 to ?1.00 that expresses the direction (positive or negative) and strength of the relationship between two variables. p. 36

14

cross-sectional research

The study of developmental processes by taking measures of children of different age groups at the same time. p. 39

15

cross-sequential research

An approach that combines the longitudinal and cross-sectional methods by following individuals of different ages for abbreviated periods of time. p. 40

16

dependent variable

In a scientific study, a measure of an assumed effect of an independent variable. p. 38

17

dynamic systems perspective

View that children’s physical, social, and cognitive development are all part of an integrated and actively changing system. p. 26

18

ecological systems theory

The view that explains child development in terms of the reciprocal influences between children and the settings that make up their environment. p. 22

19

ecology

The branch of biology that deals with the relationships between living organisms and their environment. p. 22

20

empirical

Based on observation and experimentation. p. 33

21

equilibration

The creation of an equilibrium, or balance, between assimilation and accommodation as a way of incorporating new events or knowledge. p. 19

22

ethnic groups

Groups of people distinguished by their cultural heritage, race, language, and common history. p. 26

23

ethology

The study of behaviours that are specific to a species—how these behaviours evolved, help the organism adapt, and develop during critical periods. p. 21

24

exosystem

Community institutions and settings that indirectly influence the child, such as the school board and the parents’ workplaces (from the Greek exo, meaning “outside”). p. 24

25

experiment

A method of scientific investigation that seeks to discover cause-and-effect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables. p. 33

26

experimental group

A group made up of subjects who receive a treatment in an experiment. p. 38

27

genes

The basic building blocks of heredity. p. 31

28

growth

The processes by which organisms increase in size, weight, strength, and other traits as they develop. p. 4

29

hypothesis

A specific statement about behaviour that is tested by research. p. 34

30

identity achievement

An identity status that characterizes those who have explored alternatives and have developed commitments. p. W16-4