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Flashcards in Perspectives on Child Development Deck (36)
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1

Psychosexual development [Sigmund Freud] core concepts

Social codes channel primitive impulses resulting in unconscious conflict.

2

Freud || nature or nurture?

Interaction of Maturation sets the stage for reacting to social influences

3

Freud || continuous or discontinuous?

Discontinuous: 5 stages of development that express or repress sexual impulses.

4

Freud || is child active or passive?

Passive: The child is large at the mercy of older people and cultural modes of conduct.

5

Psychosocial development [Erik Erikson] core concepts

Children undergo life crises that are largely based on social relationships and expectations

6

Erikson || nature or nurture?

Interaction of nature and nurture: Maturation sets the stage for reacting to social influences and opportunities

7

Erikson || continuous or discontinuous?

Discontinuous: There are 8 stages of development, each which involves a life crisis.

8

Erikson || is child active or passive?

Active: The child makes conscious decisions about the formation of his or her own personality and behaviour

9

Behaviourism [Pavlov, Skinner, Watson] core concepts

Behaviour is learned by association, as in classical and operant conditioning

10

Behaviourism || nature or nurture?

Nurture: Children are seen as blank slates

11

Behaviourism || continuous or discontinuous?

Continuous: Behaviour reflects the summation of conditioned responses

12

Behaviourism || is child active or passive?

Passive: Responses are learned by association and maintained by reinforcement

13

Social cognitive theory (Albert Bandura) core concepts

Conditioning occurs, but children also learn by observing others and choose whether to display learned responses

14

Bandura || nature or nurture?

Emphasizes nurture but allows for the expression of natural tendencies

15

Bandura || continuous or discontinuous

Continuous

16

Bandura || is child active or passive?

Active: Children influence the environment even as the environment influences them.

17

Cognitive-development theory [Jean Piaget] core concepts

Children adapt to the environment by assimilating new event to existing mental structures and accommodating those structures

18

Piaget || nature or nurture?

Emphasizes nature but allows for influences of experience

19

Piaget || continuous or discontinuous?

Discontinuous: Cognitive development follows an invariant sequence of four stages

20

Piaget || is child active or passive?

Active: children are budding scientists who seek to understand and manipulate their worlds

21

Information processing theory [numerous theorists] core concepts

Children's cognitive functioning is compared to that of computers--how they input, manipulate, store, and output information

22

Information Processing || nature or nurture?

Interaction of nature and nurture

23

Information Processing || continuous or discontinuous?

Continuous: The child's capacity for storing information and his or her ability to run multiple "programs" at once develop continuously.

24

Information Processing || active or passive?

Active: children seek to obtain and manipulate information

25

Ethology and evolution [Darwin, Lorenz, Tinbergen ] core concepts

Organisms are biologically prewired to develop certain adaptive responses during sensitive periods

26

Ethology and evolution: nature or nurture?

Emphasizes nature, but experience is also critical.

27

Ethology and evolution: continuous or discontinuous?

Discontinuous: Certain kinds of learning are said to occur during sensitive periods, which are biologically determined

28

Ethology and evolution: is child active or passive?

Not indicated

29

Ecological systems theory [Urie Bronfenbrenner] core concepts

Children's development occurs within interlocking systems, and development is enhanced by intervening in these systems

30

Bronfenbrenner || nature or nurture?

Interaction of nature and nurture: Children's personalities and skills contribute to their development