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Flashcards in Midterm #2 Deck (50)
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1

_____ foucuses on the psychological factors related to wellness & illness.

health psychology

2

_____ the response to events (stressors) that threaten or challenge.

stress

3

_____ interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties.

psychophysiological disorders

4

Eustress

- positive
- happy
- wedding planning

5

Distress

- negative
- car accident
- family member is sick

6

How is stress related to the immune system functioning?

it keeps us healthy

7

Fight or Flight ( meaning, what is involved physiologically)

[sympathetic nervous system] when your body is ready to attack due to suspense. ( how a body reacts to suspense )

8

Be able to categorize stressors:

1. Castrophes (earthquakes, floods, hurrricanes)
2. Daily Hassles (waking up, standing in line)
3. Major Life Events (having a baby, getting married, acceptance letters)

9

Type "A"

- competitive
- urgent about time
- agressive
- driven regarding their work
- hostile both verbally & nonverbally

10

Type "B"

- more cooperative
- far less competitive
- not especially time oriented
- not usually aggressive, driven, hostile.

11

______ efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate stressors.

copying with stress

12

______ method of managing emotion in the face of stress by seeking to change the way one feels or precieves a problem.

emotion focused copying

13

_____ attempts to modify the stressful problem or source of the stress.

problem focused copying

14

significance of social support?

release emotions, make you feel comfortable

15

what is invisible support?

when a person knows your not okay and will help you out without you asking.

16

How does imagery affect memory?

it improves memory; it does this because it is highly detailed & distinctive

17

What subfield of psychology is memory studied under?

under cognitive psychology

18

what's the difference between Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation?

INTRINSIC MOTIVATION (what you do for you)
- motivation based on internal factors such as organismic needs as well as curiosity challenge & fun.

EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION (what you do for others)
- motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards & punishments.

19

________ basic needs that need to be met like eating & drinking & going to the restroom.

drive reduction theory

20

real life application of classical conditioning ...

protecting livestock & predators with tainted carcasses phoblas.

21

______ rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.

shaping

22

_____ the process by which a rewarding stimulus or event ( reinforcer ) following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again.

reinforcement

23

________ an increase in the frequency of a behavior in response to the subsequent removal of something that is unpleasant.

negative reinforcement

24

________ an increase in the frequency of a behavior in response to the subsequent presentation of something that is good.

positive reinforcement

25

What Skinner wanted operant conditioning to be used for?

important of human kind to help the military during WWII by using pigeons tracking behavior.

26

Who is Sniffy?

the rat

27

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS); & know the significance of each stage.

1. Alarm & mobilization stage
- become aware of the presence of a stress-or
2. Resistance stage
- adjust to the situation, adapt & cope
3. Exhaustion stage
- negative consequences of prolonged stress can appear.

28

_____ a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, & hoping.

behaviorism

29

________ learning that occurs when we make a certain connection or an association, between two events.

associate learning

30

__________ a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

Psych definition of learning

31

__________
- theory is that behaviorism is the scientific study of human behavior.
- what people do
- conditioning is the process of learning to react to the environment.

John Watson

32

__________
- theory -- believed that the best way to understand behavior to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. (operant conditioning)

Skinner

33

________
- responses associated with satisfaction MORE likely to recur
- responses associated with discomfort LESS likely to recur

Edward Thorndike ( law of effect)

34

_________
- he was able to pair a neutral stimulus with an excitatory one and have the neutral stimulus elicit the response that was associated with the original unlearned reflex.

Ivan Pavlov (Russian Physiologist)

35

__________

[modeling & imitation]
1. attention
2. retention
3. reproduction
4. motivation

Albert Bandura

36

Little Albert was conditioned to fear, _______

white, soft things.

37

_______ a(n) stimulus that produces a response without prior learning.

Unconditional Stimulus (UCS) [ thunder]

38

________ a(n) unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus .

Unconditional Response (UCR) [ jump ]

39

________ a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned Stimulus (CS) [ lighting ]

40

_______ the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulus --- unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned Response (CR) [ jump ]

41

______ a behavior that is instrumental in producing a reinforcement, or avoiding a punishment.

Operant Conditioning

42

_________ organisms that adapt to their environment.

evolutionary psychology

43

______
- a need, a desire, an interest.
-energizes that maintains behavior
- diverse behavior towards a goal

motivation

44

what is homeostasis?

physiological balance; satiation

45

________ physiological needs create psychological states that drive us to reduce those needs; doesn't explain why we have those needs for necessities.

drive reduction theory

46

Maslow's hierarchy of needs --- motivators at each level; order of hierarchy.

top:

self-actualization
self-esteem
love & belongingness
safety & security
air, water, food, shelter, sleep, sex

bottom:

47

_________ stresses a positive view of human nature and the strong belief in psychological homeostasis.

humanistic psychology

48

_______ needs that take percendence over others

the hierarchy

49

3 components of emotion:

1. physiological arousal ( often indistinguishable [ internal ] )
2. expressive behavior [ when you act upon it ]
3. conscious experience [ when you think about it ]

50

why is a computer used as the analogy of human information processing?

retrieves, gives, stores, encodes