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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (253):

What is learning (2 pionts)

a process by which behaviour or knowledge changes as a result of experience
-allows us adapt to environment


what are the two processes of change in our development

-maturation and learning


what are the three types of learning

-classical conditioning
-operant conditioning
-cognitive learning


what is classical conditioning

associating stimuli with each other
(one of two types of associative learning)


Operant Conditioning

Associating responses with consequences
(one of two types of associative learning)


Cognitive Learning

Learning through observation and information


How Classical conditioning works:

after repeated exposure to stimuli with each other


The results of classical conditioning

Our natural response to one stimulus is now triggered by the new, predictive stimulus


Example of classical condition

see lightning (stimulus 1), hear thunder (stimulus 2)l; after repetition, we learn to cover our ears to lightning to avoid sound of thunder


How it works: (operant Conditioning)

we learn to associate our response (behaviour) with consequences


Results (oparant)

We learn to repeat behaviours that were followed by good results to avoid behaviour that were followed by bad results


Example (oparant)

a child learns to say 'please' (response) in order to get a cookie (good consequences) and learns to avoid grabbing the cookie because this is led to scolding and no cookie (had consequence )


Cognitive learning (how it works) (2 points)

-by observing events and the behaviour of others
-by using language to acquire information about events experienced by others


Pavlov's Discovery

-(basic of classical conditioning)
-while studying digestion in dogs. Ivan Pavlov found that salivation was eventually triggered by neutral stimuli that predicted that arrivial of food such as,
--> just seeing the food or dish
--> seeing the person who brought the food
-->just hearing that person's footsteps


(before conditioning ) Neutral stimulus

a stimulus whihc doesnt tigger a response


Before conditioning
(Unconditioned stimulus)

a stimulus which triggers a response naturally, before/without any conditioning


During Conditioning
(neutral Stimulus and unconditioned stimulus )

repeatedly presented with the food (unconditioned stimulus)



refers to the initial stage of learning conditioning
-As the CS and US are paired, the strength of the CR grows
-Timing is important - the Cs should appear roughly half a second before the US for learning to occur



refers to the diminishing of a conditioned response
-if the US stops appearing after the CS, then the CR decreases


After Extinction .... (processes of classical conditioning)

spontaneous recovery may occur, or a return of the CR despite no further conditioning
-Very likely to occur following a period of rest


Generalization (classical conditioning)

refers to the tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by similar or conditioned responses trigger by similar or related stimuli
-Ex: a child who learned to fear white rats is also afraid of white rabbits and santa's beard (respond to MORE stuff)



refers to the learned ability to only respond to a specific stimulus, preventing generalization
Example: a child who learns to fear white rats is only afraid of white rats and not grey or black rats (respond to LESS stuff)


Applications of classical conditioning (10)

-substance abuse
immune response
sexual arousal
territory defense
learning about good bad foods


John B watson and playing with fear experiment (experiment)

An example of classical conditioning and phobias
-In 1920, 9-month old little Albert was not afraid of rats
-Watson and Rayner then clanged a steel bar every time a rat was presented to Albert
-Albert acquired a fear of rats, and generalized this fear to other soft and furry things


Reinforced (operant conidtioning begins)

behaviour is more likely to be tried again
example: A child punches another child to get a desired toy and it works; this child will likely to be try punching again.



behaviour is less likely to be tired in the future
ex: a child punishes another child to get a desired toy and gets sent to their room; this child is less likely to try punching again


Thorndike's Law of Effects

States that behaviours that are followed by favourable concequences become more likely, and behaviours followed by unfavourable consequences become less likely


Skinners (expansion on thorndike's principles and questions) (3 questions)

-How can we more carefully measure the effect of consequences on behaviouor?
what else can creatures be taught to do by controlling consequences?
What happens when we change the timing of reinforcement?


What did skinner invent

invented 'the skinner box' or "operant chamber", which allowed detailed tracking of rates of behaviour (eg: lever pressing) over time



refers to any feedback form the environment that makes a behaviour more likely to recur


Positive Reinforcement

adding something desirable


Negative Reinforcement

taking away something unpleasant


A cycle of reinforcement: temper tantrums

what happens if the parent gives into a temper tantrum and abides by the child's demands??
The child's tantrum is positively reinforced, so the tantrums will get stronger and more frequent
-The parent's 'giving in' behaviour is negatively reinforced, so the parent will give in sooner and more often


What are the two types of negative reinforcement?

Avoidance learning
escape learning


Avoidance Learning

When a response is made in order to remove the possibility that the unpleasant stimulus will occur



a behaviour by rewarding successive approximations to the behaviour is a way to train a new behaviour


example of shaping

In one well-known example, students shaped an instructor to stay left by smiling and nodding only when the instructor was to the left



refers to the ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response
-shaping can increase discrimination, if reinforcement is only delivered when certain discriminating stimuli are present
(example: pigeons, seals, and manatees can respond to specific shapes, colours and categories of pictures).


Generalization (operant conditioning)

occurs when an operant response take place to a new stimulus that is similar to the original stimulus
-example: a dog trained to sit to the command "sit" may also sit when it hears a similar word "fit" or "sip"


Extinction (operant)

is the weakening of an operant response that results when reinforcement no longer available
example: a child no longer earns money for doing the dishes, so dish-doing decreases


Spontaneous recovery (operant)

occurs when a previously reinforces response return following a period of rest.


Reward Devaluation (operant)

occurs when a reinforcer loses some of the values
Ex, a rat pressing a bar for food may press the bar less if it is full rather than hungry
-this can obviously affect the vigour of behaviour


Delay of reinforcement

refers to how long after the behaviour occurs is the reinforcement delivered
learning much better if there is little delay


Schedules of rienfocement

refers to the rules of how often and when reinforcement is delivered


Continuous Reniforcement

the subject is rewarded every time they preform the target behaviour
(the behaviour is learned very quickly, but also stops quickly of reinforcement is no longer delivered


partial/intermittent reinforcement

the subject is rewarded only some of the time for doing the target behaviour
-->it takes longer to learn the behaviour, but it will persist longer without reward


Comparing continuous and partial reinforcement schedules:

-Continous reinforcement: -->Faster learning and faster exteniction
-->Partial Reinforcement:
-Slower learning and more resistant to extinction


What are the two different schedules of partial/intermediate reinforcement

based on interval of time that has gone by or the certain ratio of rewards per number of instances of the desired behaviour


the two schedules Interval of time

Fixed interval schedule: rewarded very hour
Variable interval schedule:
reward after changing/random amount of time passes


the two schedules rate of time

Fixed ratio schedule: reward every five targeted behaviours
Variable ratio schedule: rewarding after a randomly chosen instance of the target behaviour


Which reinforcement schedule produces the most responding (ie, more target behvaiour)?

-each schedule produces a predictable pattern of responses when number of responses is measured over time


Punishment ( operant conditioning)

refers to any feedback from the enviroment that makes a behaviour less likely to recur
(the two types are positive and negative)


Positive Punishment

You ADD something unpleasant/aversive (eg. scold the child)


Negative Punishment

you TAKE AWAY something pleasant/desired (eg: no TV time, no attention)


What does severity have to do with punishment

the severity of punishment is not helpful decreasing a behaviour as making the punishments immediate and certain.
-the search for positive opposites - eg: 'dont fight' becomes 'play nicely'
-->in order to teach a desired behaviour, reinforce what's right more often than punishing what's wrong


Overview: (adding stimuli)

-Positive + Reinforcement (you get candy) [uses desirable stimuli] Strengthens target behaviours (you do your chores)
postive + punishment (you get scolded)
[uses unpleasant stimuli] Strengthens target behaviours (you do your chores)
reduces target behaviour (cursing)


Overview: (subtract stimuli)

negative-reinforcement (i stop yelling) [uses unpleasant stimuli] Strengthens target behaviours (you do your chores)

Negtaive-punishment (no cell phone) [uses desirable stimuli] Strengthens target behaviours
reduces target behaviour (cursing)


Applications of operant conditioning (school)

long before tablet computers, B.F. skinner proposed machines that would reinforce students for the correct resposes, allowing students to improve at different rates and work on different learning goals


Applications of operant conditioning (sports )

athletes improve most in shaping approach in which they are reinforced for the performance that comes closer and closer to the target skill
(eg hitting, pitches that are progressively faster)


Applications of operant conditioning (work)

some companies make pay a function of performance or company profit rather than seniority; they target more specific behaviours to reinforce,


Applications of operant conditioning (Parenting )

reward small improvements toward desired behaviours rather than expecting complete success; reward good behaviours rather than punish bad behaviours


Applications of operant conditioning (Training animals)

entertainment and to assist disabled people, the police, and the military


Basic Idea (CC and OC)

CC- assoicating events/stimuli with each other
OC-Assoicating chosen behaviours with resulting events


Response (CC and OC)

CC-Involuntary, automatic reactions such as salivating
OC- Voluntary actions "operating" on our environment


Acquisition (CC and OC)

CC-NS linked to US by repeatedly presenting NS before US
OC-Behaviour is associated with punishment or reinforcement


Extinction (CC and OC)

CC-CR decreases when CS is repeatedly presented alone
OC-target behaviour decreasing when reinforcement stops


Spontaneous Recovery (CC and OC)

CC-Extinguished CR starts again after a rest period (no CS) '
OC-Extinguished response starts again after a rest (no reward)


Generalization (CC and OC)

CC-When CR is triggered by the stimuli similar to the CS
OC-Response behaviour similar to the reinforced behaviour


Discrimination (CC and OC)

CC- Distinguishing between a CS and NS not linked to U.S
OC- Distinguishing what will get reinforced and what will not


Classical and operant conidtioning (examples of both)

Amy won jackpot on the slots, bells and whistles were going off all around her in the casino. Now, whenever she sees a slot machine with lots of bells and whistles, she feels a rush of excitement
Joey's chore growing up was dishes. Every night after dinner, Jpey's parents would sit down to watch the news while he was supposed to tend dishes. But every night, Joey was delayed in starting the dishes. He would get scolded and feel bad inside, and this usually happened right after the news began with its jaunty tune. Years later, whenever Joey hears the tune from the news, he feels bad inside


Early behaviorists in S-R learning

-implies that it would be possible to train any behaviour, and that all behaviours are equally trainable


Evolutionary history point

some realized that each species has an evolutionary history that makes it primed to learn some things faster/easier/better than others


with classical conditioning, some associations are learned more easily than others (examples)

-Rats were found to associate illness with a flavour rather than a tone, and to associate a shock with a tone rather than a flavour
-Male quail were found to have a sexual response link to a fake quail more easily than to a red light .
-Humans are more likely to develop phobias for things that have evolutionary significance (snakes, heights) rather than for things that are harmful in present day (guns, cars)


Sometimes innate tendencies actually interfere with classical conditioning

-pigeons tendency to peck a light that is associated with food is so strong, they will peck the light even if doing so means that they will not get fed


Operational conditioning, some associations are learned more easily than others: (examples)

-while a dog easily learns to detect different scents, it could never learn to put on clothes
A cat can learn to pull a lever to escape a box but it can't learn to yawn to escape a box


Sometimes innate tendencies actually interfere with operant conditioning (example)

-The Breland's found that a raccoon couldn't learn to drop coins in a piggy bank for food reward


Early behaviorists believed in S-R learning (what does that imply)

-Implies that as long as S and R occurred close together in time and were followed by reinforcement, learning would happen
-no need to discuss, inter, or contemplate mental events


What was the other argument to S-R learning?

-some argued that mental events need to be considered
-Called S-O-R (cognitive) learning
'O' = organism's cognitive representation of the world


Expectancy model (Rescora And Wagner, 1972)

-CS produces the expectancy that the US will follow
-The imprtant factor in classical conditioning isn't how often the CS-US paring occurs, but rather how 3well the CS predicts the US


Cognition in classical conditioning (example)

Group 1 learn more about CS then Group 2, even though both groups had CS -->US 50 times
-group 1: CS -->US 50 times
-group 2: CS -->US 50 times
no CS --> US 50 times


Latent Learning (tolman and Honzik, 1930)

-learning that is not immediately expressed in behaviour until reinforcement is available contingent on the behaviour


Cognition in operant conditioning

-Cognitive map (Tolman, 1948):
-->mental representation of spatial layouts
-Suggests the learning provides knowledge and expectation of what leads to what leads to what
--> after learning simple maze many rats chose 4th (most direct) path


Problem solving (kohler, 1925)

-The "eureka" moment
-sudden perception of useful relationships


Observational learning

-refers to learning that occurs by observing the behaviour of a model
-it is highly adaptive
-->if learning were trial and error on our own we would learn very slowly
-from watching others, we can learn how to do things when to do things etc...


What are the processes in observational

-attention, memory, motor reproduction of behaviour, motivation


Baudura's (1961, 1963) bobo doll experiment

-showed that children are ready to learn from others
-children who watched an adult act aggressively toward the doll were more likely to behave aggressively than children who did not watch the adult aggressively


Mirror neurons

-presence of mirror neurons also show that we are wired to learn from others
--->mirror neurons fire in the sea pattern when we watch other doing or feeling something as if we were doing the action or having the feeling ourselves!


Implications of our 'readiness'

our 'readiness' to learn from others in our modern time with ample media violence:
-Research shows that viewing media violence leads to increased aggression (fights) and reduced pro social behaviour (such as helping an injured person)


The story of H.M

-H.M. was 27 years old in 1953 when he had most of his hippocampus and surrounding brain tissue removed
-operation was successful, but he could no longer form new memories
-he was able to learn and preform new tasks, even with mno memory of the task!
-ex: improves on mirror-trace task over trails



processes that allow us to record and retrieve experiences and information


The Atkinson-Shiffren Model

-The first model of memory
-Assumes memory is multistage process in which information flows along three separate and interacting memory stores


The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model (pathway)

Sensory Organs --> Sensory Memory --> Short-term Memory --> long term memory


Sensory Organs and between sensory memory (The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model)

Eyes, Ears
-Tranduction from physical energy (sensation) into neural impulses


Sensory Memory and between short term memory (The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model)

-limitless, but short-lived
2 options
-Attention: helps select a portion of the sensory memory for further processing


short term memory and the stuff between to long term memory(The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model)

7+- 2 itmes; last 30 seconds
(double arrow)
-information is rehearsed some information is encoded into long term memory
-other way .... later , some information can be retrieved


long term memory (The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model)

unlimited, but not always accessible


Sensory memory (detailed)

-Information picked up by our senses and enter sensory memory
-->briefly holds sensory information
two methods
iconic memory
echoic memory
-Sensory memory is in the initial information processor
-->selects what details to pay attention to
-->Sends this information on the STM for rehearsal and further processing


Iconic Memory

visual memory is less than 5 seconds


Echoic Memory

Auditory memory lasts roughly 5 seconds


Sensory memory (example)

-studied by sperling (1960)
the letters and the music tones examples


Relationship between sensory memory and attention

obvious with a phenomenon called change blindness
--> failure to notice subtle changes in briefly presented stimuli unless attention is directed to those changes


short term memory

-temporarily holds a limited amount of information


How is information represented? (short term memory )

Various forms of representations/memory codes
-images (visual), sounds (phonological), meaning (semantic), physical action (motor), etc...
Form of memory code doesn't necessarily correspond to form of original stimulus
-->example: sound-alike errors on memory tests for visually presented stimuli


whats the capacity of short term memory

-magical number 7, +- 2 (Miller, 1956)
-Can increase short-term memory by Chunking
-->combining individual items into larger units of meaning


whats the duration of short term memory

-information is rapidly lost unless we actively do something with it (rehearsal)


Long term memory ( more detail)

-Library of durable stored memories
-Storage capacity unlimited, and information can last a lifetime


What is the distinction between short-term and long term

-seen in 'serial position effect'
-participants are read a list of unrelated words and asked to recall as many as they can
-researchers look at memory as a function of each word`s position in the list


Serial Position effect

-Find U-shaped pattern as a function of position in list
-->superior recall of early (primary effect) and most recent (recency effect) words


Primacy effect:

information transferred to long-term memory
-effect diminished if increase rate of presentation


Recency effect

-information still in short-term memory
-->effect diminished if time delay before recall


-Serial Position effect
what about the dip in the middle of the curve?

Caused by two different mechanisms
-proactive interference
-Retroactive Interference


Proactive interference

-First information learned occupies memory resources, leaving fewer resources to remember later, incoming information


Retroactive interference

-most recently learned overshadows old memories that have not yet made it into LTM


Working memory model

-Gives us a mental work-space in which we store actively process information
-A model of short term memory that includes multiple memory components:
4 components
phonological loop
visuspatial sketchpad
episodic buffer
central executive


phonological loop

-auditory storage


visuspatial sketchpad

-store of mental images and spatial information


episodic buffer

-combines images and sounds into a coherent, story-like episode


central executive

in control of the other stores; directs attention and exchanges information among other three stores


Sub divisions of long term memory

-subdivided according to whether we are conscious of the given memory


Declarative memory (aka explicit memory)

-facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall
two subtypes:
episodic memories
Semantic memories


Episodic memories

memories for personal experiences that seem to be organized arounnd 'episodes' and are recalled in the first-person


Semantic Memories

-memories that contain factual knowledge
-acquired through effort full processing (studying, rehearsing, thinking etc... )


Non declarative memory (aka implicit memory)

-include actions or behaviours that we can remember and preform without awareness
-include actions or behaviours that we can remember and perform without awareness
-acquired through automatic processing (no effort made to form a memory)
two subtypes
Procedural memories
Classical Conditioning


Procedural Memories

motor memories for patterns of muscle movement


Classical Conditioning

When a previously neutral stimulus produces a response because it has been paired with a stimulus that produces a response


Why is the brain not like a hard drive

-Memories are not isolated files
-->They're in overlapping neural networks
-The storage capacity does not get full
-->it gets more elaborately rewired and interconnected


what did Lashley (1950) show

that rats that had learned a maze retained parts of that memory, when when various small parts of their brain were removed


Long-term potentiation (LTP):

-The enduring increase in connectivity and transmission of neural signals between neurons that fire together



-A process of converting short-term memories into long term memories in the brain.
--> cellular consolidation = when presynaptic cell is more likely to stimulate a specific postsynaptic cell (or group of cells), due to repeated firing


Retrograde Amnesia

The inability to remember what was already known at the onset of amnesia (retrieve memory of the past)


Anterograde amnesia

-the inability to form new long-term explicit memories
-implicit memory intact
--> Could still learn how to get places (automatic processing), and could learn new skills (procedural memory)


More about H.M

-Anterograde amnesia following removal of hippocampus
-LTM largely intact - could recall events from his past
-could form new implicit memories - learn new skills, although no memory of this
-Problem specific to transferring declarative/explicit memories from STM to LTM



The process of transforming sensory and perceptual information into memory traces
-More effective encoding into LTM = greater likelihood of retrieval



the process of accessing information for LTM and returning it to STM


Maintenance Rehearsal

-Rote repetition of information
-not an optimal method


Elaborative rehearsal

-Focuses on information's meaning
-may involve: organizing, understanding, applying to one's life, relating to already learned concepts ,using imagery
Self reference effect


Self-reference effect

relating material to ourselves helps encoding and retention


Levels of processing

-Depth of processing increases recall


Retrieval Cues

_stimuli that lead to activiation of information stored in LTM
-Multiple Cues lead to better retrieval
-->involves deeper processing
-Self generated cues lead to better retrieval
-Retrieval of distinctive events
-->greater chance of etching vivid, clear, long temr me memories
(weddings, romantic encounters, births, deaths)


Context-dependent memory

-the context of where learning occurred can also become part of the memory and used as a retrieval cue
-We retrieve a memory more easily when in the same context as when we formed the memory.


State-dependent memory

-ability to retrieve is better when internal state matches that at encoding


Mood-dependent Learning

Tend to recall information or events congruent with current mood


why are emotional memories more likely to be retained

-emotions trigger an increase in stress hormones
-stress hormones trigger the amygdala


What does the amygdala do in emotional times

increased the hippocampus' job of consolidating the memory
-engages the frontal lobes and basal ganglia to 'tag' the memory as important


Flashbulb Memories

-Extremely detailed and vivid memories about events and the conditions surrounding how one learned about the event
-Not necessarily accurate!


The forgetting curve

-Rapid loss of memory at first, then a more gradual decline



a technique intended to improve memory for specific information
-method of loci
-peg word system
-First-letter technique


Method of loci

associating each to-be-remembered word with a location along a familiar path


Peg word System

associating each to-be-remembered word with an existing list that is already memorized along with numbers



-OCEAN = Big Five Personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism)


First-letter Technique

-Never Eat Shredded Wheat = north south east west


Dual Coding Theory

-Memory enhanced if use multiple codes
-->ex. using both a verbal and visual code
-leads to deeper processing
-->more memory associations with multiple codes
-leads to more retrieval cues that could be used later



organized clusters of memories that constitute one's knowledge about events, objects and ideas


Points about schema (4)

are a product of our culture and experience
-helps us understand and organize incoming information
-->vague laundry paragraph
-involved in all stages of memory
-may cause memory errors, particularly for uninteresting events that do not fit our schemas
-->examples: little old lady driving a mustang convertible


how is Memory is a constructive process

-memories are imagined, selected, changed, and rebuilt
-memories are altered every time we 'recall' (actually, reconstruct) them
-memories are altered again when we reconsolidate the memory
-later information alters earlier memories


False Memory

remembering events that did not occur, or incorrectly recalling details of an event
-the more we imagine an event, the more it will see, like a real memory
ex. have you ever discovered that one of your childhood memories wasn't really your own?
it was from a book or movie, or it was from a story that happened to someone else, or it was from a dream, etc...


The misinformation effect

Distoration of memory for an event that is caused by misleading post-event information
-loftus and palmer (1974) had partcipants watch a video of a minor car accident
-Participants were then asked "how fast were the cars going when they ____ each other


What are the six ways to make eyewitness testimony more reliable during the lineup procedure

-employ double-blind procedures for lineups
-use appropriate instructions
-compose the lineup carefully
-use sequential lineups
require confidence statements
-record the procedures


DRM procedure

studying false memories created in a lab
-doctored childhood photographs


how to recover memories of abuse

-abused memories are most likely to be a memory "burned in" than forgotten
-->also tend to avoid thinking about them , so memory may fade over time
-Accidental reminders can activate a forgotten memory for minor events
-Actively searching for memories can create detailed memories that feel very real


how to recover memories of abuse continued

-while true repressed or recovered memories may be rare, unreported memories of abuse are very common
-there is no clear way to tell when someone actually been abused
-an implanted, constructed memory can be just as troubling as a memory from direct experience



refers to the continuities and changes that occur within the individual between conception and death
-the most dramatic changes occur early in the lifespan, so we will focus there


Nature and nurture

-how do our genes and experience guide development over our lifespan?


Change and stability

in what ways do we change as we aged, and in what ways do we stay the same?


Sensitive Period

how much flexibility do we have in the timing of our exposure to specific environment input in order for specific ability to develop 'normally'?


Continuity versus stages

is development a gradual change or are there some leaps to a new way of thinking or behaving


How to Measure Infant Behaviour

-can't just ask an infant about how they experience the world
-competence-performance distinction:
-An individual may fail a task not because they lack those abilities, but because they were unable to show those abilities
-->thus, what we know about infants is only as good as our tools for measuring their abilities


Habituation procedure (2 main points)

-used to determine if the infant can be detect the difference between two stimuli
Ex: can an infant hear the difference between a male and female voice
-->present male voice until infant shows boredom in a response you're meaning (this is habituation)
-change the stimulus to a female voice
-if the infant detects the change, then they should show a coinciding change in response at that exact moment (this is dis-habituation)
-another example (can infant distinguish blue from green)


Evoked potentials

-used to determine if an infant can detect a stimulus at all
-measure an infant's brain waves through electrodes while you present a stimulus
-->if the infant can detect the stimulus, then the pattern of brain waves will change


High-amplitude sucking method:

-used to determine what stimulus an infant prefers
-infant is given a special pacifier that responds to sucking rate
-if they suck at a certain rate, they get access to a certain stimulus


Preference method :

-Used to measure infant's likes and dislikes for visual stimuli
-Infant is placed in a 'looking chamber ' and is shown two stimuli at once
-Researchers can measure where the infant is looking to determine preferences


Longitudinal Design

-A developmental research design in which the same individuals are studied repeatedly over some subset of their lifespan


What are the advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal designs

-Can access developmental change !!!
-Very expensive and time consuming
-Selective attrition:
-Loss of Ps such that the sample ends up being different from the population as a whole
-Original research question may become obsolete
-Practice effects
-Cohort Effects


Cross-sectional Design

-A development research design in which individuals from different age groups are studied at the same point in time


What are the advantages and disadvantages of Cross-sectional designs

-Less time consuming and expensive
-Can uncover age differences
-can't distinguish age effects from cohort effects
can't assess developmental change


Sequential Design

-a developmental research design in which individuals from different age groups are repeatedly test over some subset of the lifespan


What are the advantages and disadvantages of sequential designs

Advantages: -less time consuming and expensive than longitudinal
-can assess development change
Disadvantages: -more expensive and time consuming than cross sectional
-can't generalize to other cohorts



-sperm and egg unite to bring genetic material together and form one organism
-the fertilized cell is called a zygote


Germinal Stage

-from conception to implantation
-cell division occurs at an exponential rate
-cells already begin to differentiate into structures and locations


Embryonic Stage

-week 2 to 8
-period when most vital organs are formed
--> thus, a period of vulnerability
cell differentiation continues as cells develop into organs and bones
-->heart beating
-->Brain development begins at week 3
-arms, legs , hands, feet, eyes, ears etc... ,


Fetal Stage

from week 9 to 38 (birth)
-stage of grwoth and refinement in all existing organs
3 Months: smile and frown
6 months: eyes are open and can hear
9 months : rapid increase in weight
-Age of viability


Age of Viability

by 6 months may be able to survive outside the womb


Things that could of wrong in prenatal development (3)

-genetic problems
-->chromosomal abnoralities (Down's syndrome)
-Environmental problems
__>Exposure to tertatogens (any drug, disease, pollution, or other factor that can have detrimental effects on the developing embryo or fetus
-Maternal characteristics
-->overall health and self-care


what system operate at birth

-tactile, auditory and chemical perceptual
will orient towards source of significant stimuli
eg: sounds, tactile stimuli, odours


Visual system of a new born

-the least developed sense at birth
-prefer patterned stimuli
-prefer mother's face
-some colour vision
-size and shape constancy


Learning in the newborn

-can learn to associate two stimuli together if one reliably predicts the other
-can do simple observational learning
-->imitate adult facial expressions


Rooting reflex

touch around cheek and baby will orient toward touch


the Moro reflex

-when startled by lack of support to the head, the baby will flail their arms out and in


Grasping reflex

when the baby's palm is touched, they squeeze in a very strong grip


Brain Development of an baby

-at birth, 25% of adult brain weight
-at 6 months, 50% of adult weight
-cells become larger, neural networks form
Growth rate slows in later childhood
-the brain grows inside out


which way does the brain grow

The brain grows inside-out
-at birth, brain-stem and mid-brain most developed
-first areas of the cerebrum to mature
-->primary sensory cortex
-->primary motor cortex
-Last areas: associative areas of the cortex


Vision Sensory Devleopment

-From 1/40th of the visual acuity of adults at birth to 20/20 vision at 6 months


Audition Sensory Development

-Phoneme discrimination exceeds that of an adult
-disappears by 1 year of age


Motor Development
(stage-like sequences)
what factors play a role

-age of acquiring skill varies, sequence does not



the mental activities that help us function, including:
-reasoning and decision making
-using self-talk and inner voice


Jean Piaget

-Studied errors in cognition made by children in order to understand in what ways they think differently than adults
-identified stages of cognitive development that unfold as children mature


What did Piaget Believe

that our understanding of things in our world is modified in two ways
Believed in nature and nurture
-->children grow by maturation as well as by learning through interacting/playing with the environment
-that development proceeds in stages
-->Each stage represents a distinct way of thinking



new experiences incorporated into what we already know



new experiences cause change in what we already know


Sensorimotor stage

birth to 2 years
-understand world through sensory experiences and physical interactions with objects
Begin to acquire language
-6 to 8 month develop object permanence


Object permanence

understanding that objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen


Preoperational stage

2 to 7 years
-world is represented symbolically through words and mental images
-symbolic thinking enables pretend play
-but some unique ways of thinking
--> do not understand conservation
-->display egocentrism
-->commit scale errors


Concrete operational stage

-7 to 11 years
-Easily preform basic mental operations involve tangible problems and situations
-now grasp conservation and other concrete transformations
-difficulties with abstract problems


Formal Operational stage

11 + years
-can think logically about concrete and abstract problems
-able to form and test hypotheses


Assessing Piaget's theory

-stimulated a lot of research and provided a theoretical foundation upon which to build, but ....
-->development is a continuous process
-->children show mental abilities and operations at an earlier age than piaget thought
-->Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition, even for adults,



-Social interaction is important for development
-children learn thinking skills by internalizing language from others and developing inner speech
Development viewed as building on a scaffold of mentoring, language, and cognitive support from parents, siblings, teachers, and others
-ideal level of instruction is the zone of proximal development -child can't quite do alone but can with guidance of teacher/helper


Social development (attachment)

-Strong emotional bond between children primary caregivers
-important for survival and development
-attachment process
-->newborns: indiscriminate attachment
-->3 months: discriminate attachment
-->7-8 months: specific attachment


What are the two types of anxiety that accompany specific attachment

Stranger anxiety: 6-18 months
-->distress over contact with unfamiliar people
separation anxiety: 1-3 years
-->distress over being separated from primary caregiver
-shows similar pattern across cultures


How to determine attachment style of a 1 year old

-use the "strange situation' procedure
-->lab test of 8 episodes that stimulate caregiver-infant interactions in everyday life
-->infant's behaviour is recorded to determine the attachment style with their caregiver


8 lab episodes breakdown

1-Experimenter introduces parent and infant to playroom and leaves
2 parents sits while baby palys
3. Stanger enters, sits, talks to parent
4. Parent leaves
5. Parent returns and greets baby, stranger leaves
6. parent leaves
7. stanger enters and offers comfort
8 Parent returns, comforts, engages baby with toys


define Secure attachment

-most children fall in this category
-infant explores when mother is present and is upset when she leaves
-greets mother warmly upon her return and seeks her comfort


what are the 3 insecure attachment types

-anxious/resistant type
-aviodant type
-disorganized type


Anxious/resistant type

-infant clings to mother and is less likely to explore the environment
-upset when mother leaves and likely remains upset when she returns


Aviodant Type

-infant shows very little distress when mother leaves and seems to ignore her
-may be sociable with or ignore stranger


Disorganized Type

-infant seems to both approach and avoid mother
-may act dazed or freeze


what causes the different attachment

-Infant's temperament a minor influence
-parenting behaviour is key factor
-->sensitive and responsive parenting leads to secure attachment
-->inconsistent, impatient, or overstimulating care giving leads to insecure attachments
-Training in sensitive responding for parents increases the rates of secure attachment


father is a caregiver

-many studies of the impact of parenting focused on mothers
-correlational studies show a strong relationship between paternal involvement in parenting and the child's academic success, health, and overall well-being


Deprivation of attachment (behaviours)

-strong capacity for recovery if deprivation is over the first 2 years of life and then child is put in a good home
-Less chance of recovery with longer deprivation period
-->Difficulty forming attachments
-->increased anxiety and depression
-->increased aggression


What age does puberty begin

age 11 in girls
age 13 in boys


Primary sex traits

changes in the body that are part of reproduction (e.g., enlargement of the genitals, ability to ejaculate,
the onset of menstruation).


Secondary sex traits

changes in the body that are not part of reproduction , such as
the growth of pubic hair, increased breast size in females,
and increased muscle mass in males



— the onset of menstruation —
typically occurs around age 12.



their fi rst ejaculation of sperm, at around age 14


fact about earlier developers

Nevertheless, early developers of either
gender run a greater risk of drug and alcohol abuse and
unwanted pregnancies


why do teens struggle with self-control

frontal lobes
also undergo a wave of synaptic pruning, during which
relatively unused synaptic connections are broken, leaving
a more efficiently functioning brain.


Some theorists believed about adolenses

the absence of extreme volatility was an indication of arrested development


delay gratifi cation

off immediate temptations in order to focus on longer-term


KOHLBERG’S MORAL DEVELOPMENT: three general stages

Preconventional morality
Conventional morality
Postconventional morality


Carol Gilligan (1982)

that females base moral decisions on a standard of caring
for others , rather than the “masculine” emphasis on standards
of justice and fairness that Kohlberg emphasized.


social intuitionist model

which argues that
moral judgments are guided by intuitive, emotional reactions.
Generally, we make a decision based on our “gut
reaction” and then afterwards we construct the arguments
that support our judgments


Preconventional morality

Characterized by self-interest in seeking reward or avoiding
punishment . Preconventional morality is considered a
very basic and egocentric form of moral reasoning.
“I would not flip the trolley track switch
because I would get in trouble.


Conventional morality

Regards social conventions and rules as guides for
appropriate moral behaviour. Directives from parents,
teachers, and the law are used as guidelines for moral
“I would not flip the switch. It is illegal to
kill, and if I willfully intervened I would have
probably violated the law.”


Postconventional morality

Considers rules and laws as relative. Right and wrong
are determined by more abstract principles of justice
and rights.
“I would not flip the trolley track switch
because I would get in trouble.


what is involved in an identity

a clear sense of what kind
of person you are, what types of people you belong with, and
what roles you should play in society .


What are the three main areas of personal growth

relationships, new
possibilities, and personal strengths



the termination of the
menstrual cycle and reproductive ability



refers to mild to severe disruption of mental functioning,
memory loss, disorientation, poor judgment, and decision making.


Alzheimer’s disease

a degenerative
and terminal condition resulting in severe damage of
the entire brain


Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development

Preschool/early childhood:
Young adulthood



trust versus mistrust: Developing a
sense of trust and security toward caregivers.



autonomy versus
shame and doubt: Seeking
independence and gaining
self-suffi ciency.


Preschool/early childhood

initiative versus
guilt: Active exploration of the environment and
taking personal initiative.



industry versus inferiority: Striving
to master tasks and challenges of childhood,
particularly those faced in school. Child begins
pursuing unique interests



identity versus role confusion:
Achieving a sense of self and future


Young adulthood

intimacy versus isolation:
Developing the ability to initiate and maintain
intimate relationships



generativity versus
stagnation: The focus is on
satisfying personal and family
needs, as well as contributing
to society.



ego integrity versus despair: Coping
with the prospect of death while looking
back on life with a sense of contentment and
integrity for accomplishments


The First Horseman—Criticism

about what’s wrong in a relationship is okay, but stay
focused on what you want to see change. Once the
complaint shifts from the problem itself to how it’s all
your partner’s fault, criticism is rearing its ugly head.
Watch out for words like “always” and “never.” This fi rst
horseman is often followed by . .


The Second Horseman—Defensiveness

“It’s not
my fault! You do x, y, and z too!” When you feel attacked,
it’s natural to want to defend yourself, but it undermines
communication and turns a problem-solving dialogue
into a war. Instead of defending, take responsibility for
your part of the problem, let your partner know you’re listening and you’re open to
what your partner is saying, and
try to find solutions together
rather than just “proving” it’s
not all your fault.


The Third Horseman—

“If you were my
husband, I’d poison your coffee!”
“Yeah, well if you were
my wife, I’d drink it!” Although
this is a joke, contempt is basically
relationship poison. Contempt
creeps in when one
partner feels superior to the
other, feels that what upsets the
other is not that big of a deal
and engages in name-calling,
sarcastic retorts, and eye-rolling
during a confl ict. To avoid contempt,
make the choice to focus
on all those things you love and
appreciate about your partner, and try to understand the
concerns from your partner’s perspective, not yours. Just because something seems like “no big deal” to you, it is to them, and they have good reasons for their reactions,perhaps reaching into painful experiences they’ve had in the past. Instead of judging them, practice empathizing,and instead of focusing on how much they have failed,focus on how hard they are trying.


The Fourth Horseman—Stonewalling

This one
seems straightforward—the stony silence, one-word
answers, going cold and acting like you don’t care. What’s
not straightforward is realizing that what causes stonewalling
is often that the person feels so emotionally
overwhelmed that she or he doesn’t know what to say
or how to respond. But instead of disengaging, it’s better
to be honest, tell your partner that you don’t know what
to say, you’re confused or upset or just feeling a lot of emotions, and you need to take a break. It’s a lot easier to
try again once the emotions have settled down, and it’s a
lot easier for your partner to know that you aren’t shutting
her or him out.



being engaged
in meaningful and productive work, as well as making contributions
to future generations .


Socioemotional selectivity theory

describes how older
people have learned to pay more attention to positive
experiences, and set goals that emphasize positive emotions
and meaningful connection